skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Wang, L"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. An algorithm is proposed to encode low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes into codewords with a non-uniform distribution. This enables power-efficient signalling for asymmetric channels. We show gains of 0.9 dB for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels with on-off keying modulation using 5G LDPC codes. 
    more » « less
  2. An expurgating linear function (ELF) is an outer code that disallows low-weight codewords of the inner code. ELFs can be designed either to maximize the minimum distance or to minimize the codeword error rate (CER) of the expurgated code. A list-decoding sieve can efficiently identify ELFs that maximize the minimum distance of the expurgated code. For convolutional inner codes, this paper provides analytical distance spectrum union (DSU) bounds on the CER of the concatenated code. For short codeword lengths, ELFs transform a good inner code into a great concatenated code. For a constant message size of K = 64 bits or constant codeword blocklength of N = 152 bits, an ELF can reduce the gap at CER 10−6 between the DSU and the random-coding union (RCU) bounds from over 1 dB for the inner code alone to 0.23 dB for the concatenated code. The DSU bounds can also characterize puncturing that mitigates the rate overhead of the ELF while maintaining the DSU-to-RCU gap. List Viterbi decoding guided by the ELF achieves maximum likelihood (ML) decoding of the concatenated code with a sufficiently large list size. The rate-K/(K+m) ELF outer code reduces rate and list decoding increases decoder complexity. As SNR increases, the average list size converges to 1 and average complexity is similar to Viterbi decoding on the trellis of the inner code. For rare large-magnitude noise events, which occur less often than the FER of the inner code, a deep search in the list finds the ML codeword. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 4, 2024
  3. We demonstrate that Cherenkov radiation can be manipulated in terms of operation frequency, bandwidth, and efficiency by simultaneously controlling the properties of drifting electrons and the photonic states supported by their surrounding media. We analytically show that the radiation rate strongly depends on the momentum of the excited photonic state, in terms of magnitude, frequency dispersion, and its variation vs the properties of the drifting carriers. This approach is applied to design and realize miniaturized, broadband, tunable, and efficient terahertz and far-infrared sources by manipulating and boosting the coupling between drifting electrons and engineered hyperbolic modes in graphene-based nanostructures. The broadband, dispersive, and confined nature of hyperbolic modes relax momentum matching issues, avoid using electron beams, and drastically enhance the radiation rate—allowing that over 90% of drifting electrons emit photons. Our findings open an exciting paradigm for the development of solid-state terahertz and infrared sources. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 9, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  5. Fritts et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. xx, 2022, xx) describe a direct numerical simulation of interacting Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) billows arising due to initial billow cores that exhibit variable phases along their axes. Such KHI exhibit strong ‘tube and knot’ dynamics identified in early laboratory studies by Thorpe ( Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. , vol. 34, 1985, pp. 175–199). Thorpe ( Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. , vol. 128, 2002, pp. 1529–1542) noted that these dynamics may be prevalent in the atmosphere, and they were recently identified in atmospheric observations at high altitudes. Tube and knot dynamics were found by Fritts et al. ( J. Fluid. Mech. , 2022) to drive stronger and faster turbulence transitions than secondary instabilities of individual KH billows. Results presented here reveal that KHI tube and knot dynamics also yield energy dissipation rates $\sim$ 2–4 times larger as turbulence arises and that remain $\sim$ 2–3 times larger to later stages of the flow evolution, compared with those of secondary convective instabilities (CI) and secondary KHI accompanying KH billows without tube and knot influences. Elevated energy dissipation rates occur due to turbulence transitions by tube and knot dynamics arising on much larger scales than secondary CI and KHI where initial KH billows are misaligned. Tube and knot dynamics also excite large-scale Kelvin ‘twist waves’ that cause vortex tube and billow core fragmentation, more energetic cascades of similar interactions to smaller scales and account for the strongest energy dissipation events accompanying such KH billow evolutions. 
    more » « less
  6. We perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of interacting Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) that arise at a stratified shear layer where KH billow cores are misaligned or exhibit varying phases along their axes. Significant evidence of these dynamics in early laboratory shear-flow studies by Thorpe ( Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. , vol. 34, 1985, pp. 175–199) and Thorpe ( J. Geophys. Res. , vol. 92, 1987, pp. 5231–5248), in observations of KH billow misalignments in tropospheric clouds (Thorpe, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. , vol. 128, 2002, pp. 1529–1542) and in recent direct observations of such events in airglow and polar mesospheric cloud imaging in the upper mesosphere reveals that these dynamics are common. More importantly, the laboratory and mesospheric observations suggest that these dynamics lead to more rapid and more intense instabilities and turbulence than secondary convective instabilities in billow cores and secondary KHI in stratified braids between and around adjacent billows. To date, however, no simulations exploring the dynamics and energetics of interacting KH billows (apart from pairing) have been performed. Our DNS performed for Richardson number $Ri=0.10$ and Reynolds number $Re=5000$ demonstrates that KHI tubes and knots (i) comprise strong and complex vortex interactions accompanying misaligned KH billows, (ii) accelerate the transition to turbulence relative to secondary instabilities of individual KH billows, (iii) yield significantly stronger turbulence than secondary KHI in billow braids and secondary convective instabilities in KHI billow cores and (iv) expand the suite of secondary instabilities previously recognized to contribute to KHI dynamics and breakdown to turbulence in realistic geophysical environments. 
    more » « less
  7. This paper applies probabilistic amplitude shaping (PAS) to a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) aided trellis coded modulation (TCM) to achieve the short-blocklength random coding union (RCU) bound. In the transmitter, the equally likely message bits are first encoded by distribution matcher to generate amplitude symbols with the desired distribution. The binary representations of the distribution matcher outputs are then encoded by a CRC. Finally, the CRC-encoded bits are encoded and modulated by Ungerboeck's TCM scheme, which consists of a k/(k+1) systematic tail-biting convolutional code and a mapping function that maps coded bits to channel signals with capacity-achieving distribution. This paper proves that, for the proposed transmitter, the CRC bits have uniform distribution and that the channel signals have symmetric distribution. In the receiver, the serial list Viterbi decoding (S-LVD) is used to estimate the information bits. Simulation results show that, for the proposed CRC-TCM-PAS system with 87 input bits and 65-67 8-AM coded output symbols, the decoding performance under additive white Gaussian noise channel achieves the RCU bound with properly designed CRC and convolutional codes. 
    more » « less
  8. Oshima, J. ; Mochizuki, T. ; Hayashi, Y. (Ed.)