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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Relativistic Weyl fermion quasiparticles in Weyl semimetal bring the electron’s chirality degree of freedom into the electrical transport and give rise to exotic phenomena. A topological phase transition from a topological trivial phase to a topological non-trivial phase offers a route to control electronic devices through its topological properties. Here, we report the Weyl semimetal phase in hydrothermally grown two-dimensional Tellurium (2D Te) induced by high hydrostatic pressure (up to 2.47 GPa). The unique chiral crystal structure gives rise to chiral fermions with different topological chiral charges ($${{C}}=-{{1}},+{{1}},{{and}}-{{2}}$$C=1,+1,and2). The highly tunable chemical potential in 2D Te provides comprehensive information for understanding the pressure-dependent electron band structure. The pressure-induced insulator-to-metal transition, two-carrier transport, and the non-trivial π Berry phase shift in quantum oscillations are observed in the 2D Te Weyl semimetal phase. Our work demonstrates the pressure-induced bandgap closing in the inversion asymmetric narrow bandgap semiconductor 2D Te.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 23, 2025
  4. Abstract The interaction between nitrogen monoxide (NO) and organic peroxy radicals (RO 2 ) greatly impacts the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM), the key precursors of secondary organic aerosols. It has been thought that HOM production can be significantly suppressed by NO even at low concentrations. Here, we perform dedicated experiments focusing on HOM formation from monoterpenes at low NO concentrations (0 – 82 pptv). We demonstrate that such low NO can enhance HOM production by modulating the RO 2 loss and favoring the formation of alkoxy radicals that can continue to autoxidize through isomerization. These insights suggest that HOM yields from typical boreal forest emissions can vary between 2.5%-6.5%, and HOM formation will not be completely inhibited even at high NO concentrations. Our findings challenge the notion that NO monotonically reduces HOM yields by extending the knowledge of RO 2 -NO interactions to the low-NO regime. This represents a major advance towards an accurate assessment of HOM budgets, especially in low-NO environments, which prevails in the pre-industrial atmosphere, pristine areas, and the upper boundary layer. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. The main nucleating vapor in the atmosphere is thought to be sulfuric acid (H2SO4), stabilized by ammonia (NH3). However, in marine and polar regions, NH3is generally low, and H2SO4is frequently found together with iodine oxoacids [HIOx, i.e., iodic acid (HIO3) and iodous acid (HIO2)]. In experiments performed with the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber, we investigated the interplay of H2SO4and HIOxduring atmospheric particle nucleation. We found that HIOxgreatly enhances H2SO4(-NH3) nucleation through two different interactions. First, HIO3strongly binds with H2SO4in charged clusters so they drive particle nucleation synergistically. Second, HIO2substitutes for NH3, forming strongly bound H2SO4-HIO2acid-base pairs in molecular clusters. Global observations imply that HIOxis enhancing H2SO4(-NH3) nucleation rates 10- to 10,000-fold in marine and polar regions.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 15, 2024
  6. Biogenic vapors form new particles in the atmosphere, affecting global climate. The contributions of monoterpenes and isoprene to new particle formation (NPF) have been extensively studied. However, sesquiterpenes have received little attention despite a potentially important role due to their high molecular weight. Via chamber experiments performed under atmospheric conditions, we report biogenic NPF resulting from the oxidation of pure mixtures of β-caryophyllene, α-pinene, and isoprene, which produces oxygenated compounds over a wide range of volatilities. We find that a class of vapors termed ultralow-volatility organic compounds (ULVOCs) are highly efficient nucleators and quantitatively determine NPF efficiency. When compared with a mixture of isoprene and monoterpene alone, adding only 2% sesquiterpene increases the ULVOC yield and doubles the formation rate. Thus, sesquiterpene emissions need to be included in assessments of global aerosol concentrations in pristine climates where biogenic NPF is expected to be a major source of cloud condensation nuclei.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 8, 2024
  7. Abstract. Aerosol particles have an important role in Earth'sradiation balance and climate, both directly and indirectly throughaerosol–cloud interactions. Most aerosol particles in the atmosphere areweakly charged, affecting both their collision rates with ions and neutralmolecules, as well as the rates by which they are scavenged by other aerosolparticles and cloud droplets. The rate coefficients between ions and aerosolparticles are important since they determine the growth rates and lifetimesof ions and charged aerosol particles, and so they may influence cloudmicrophysics, dynamics, and aerosol processing. However, despite theirimportance, very few experimental measurements exist of charged aerosolcollision rates under atmospheric conditions, where galactic cosmic rays inthe lower troposphere give rise to ion pair concentrations of around 1000 cm−3. Here we present measurements in the CERN CLOUD chamber of therate coefficients between ions and small (<10 nm) aerosol particlescontaining up to 9 elementary charges, e. We find the rate coefficient of asingly charged ion with an oppositely charged particle increases from 2.0(0.4–4.4) × 10−6 cm3 s−1 to 30.6 (24.9–45.1) × 10−6 cm3 s−1 for particles with charges of 1 to9 e, respectively, where the parentheses indicate the ±1σuncertainty interval. Our measurements are compatible with theoreticalpredictions and show excellent agreement with the model ofGatti and Kortshagen (2008). 
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