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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Ambient carbonyls are critical precursors of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). To better understand the pollution characteristics of carbonyls in Taiyuan, field samplings were conducted, and 13 carbonyls were detected in an urban site of Taiyuan for the four seasons. The total concentration of carbonyls in the atmosphere was 19.67 ± 8.56 μg/m3. Formaldehyde (7.70 ± 4.78 μg/m3), acetaldehyde (2.95 ± 1.20 μg/m3) and acetone (5.57 ± 2.41 μg/m3) were the dominant carbonyl compounds, accounting for more than 85% of the total carbonyls. The highest values for formaldehyde and acetone occurred in summer and autumn, respectively, and the lowest occurred in winter. The variations for acetaldehyde were not distinct in the four seasons. Formaldehyde and acetone levels increased obviously in the daytime and decreased at night, while acetaldehyde did not show significant diurnal variations. Higher temperature and stronger sunlight intensity could facilitate the photochemical reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and enhance the O3 levels in summer. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde contributed 70–95% of carbonyls’ ozone formation potential (OFP) caused by carbonyls with the highest totals of 268.62 μg/m3 and 38.14 μg/m3, respectively. The highest concentrations of carbonyls from south and southwest winds in summer suggest that the cokemore »industries in the southern Taiyuan Basin should be, firstly, controlled for the alleviation of ozone pollution.« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 3, 2023
  4. Abstract. A new ion source (IS) utilizing vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light is developed and characterized for use with iodide–chemical ionization massspectrometers (I−-CIMS). The VUV-IS utilizes a compact krypton lamp that emits light at two wavelengths corresponding to energies of∼10.030 and 10.641 eV. The VUV light photoionizes either methyl iodide (ionization potential, IP = 9.54 ± 0.02 eV)or benzene (IP = 9.24378 ± 0.00007 eV) to form cations and photoelectrons. The electrons react with methyl iodide to formI−, which serves as the reagent ion for the CIMS. The VUV-IS is characterized by measuring the sensitivity of a quadrupole CIMS (Q-CIMS) toformic acid, molecular chlorine, and nitryl chloride under a variety of flow and pressure conditions. The sensitivity of the Q-CIMS, with theVUV-IS, reached up to ∼700 Hz pptv−1, with detection limits of less than 1 pptv for a 1 min integration period. Thereliability of the Q-CIMS with a VUV-IS is demonstrated with data from a month-long ground-based field campaign. The VUV-IS is further tested byoperation on a high-resolution time-of-flight CIMS (TOF-CIMS). Sensitivities greater than 25 Hz pptv−1 were obtained for formic acid andmolecular chlorine, which were similar to that obtained with a radioactive source. In addition, the mass spectra from sampling ambient air wascleaner with the VUV-IS on the TOF-CIMS compared to measurements using a radioactive source. These results demonstrate that the VUV lamp is a viablesubstitute for radioactivemore »ion sources on I−-CIMS systems for most applications. In addition, initial tests demonstrate that the VUV-IS canbe extended to other reagent ions by the use of VUV absorbers with low IPs to serve as a source of photoelectrons for high IP electron attachers,such as SF6-.« less
  5. Abstract. Mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were recordedin two field campaigns in central Beijing as part of the Air Pollution andHuman Health in a Chinese Megacity (APHH) project. These data were used tocalculate, for the first time in Beijing, the surface–atmosphere fluxes ofVOCs using eddy covariance, giving a top-down estimation of VOC emissionsfrom a central area of the city. The results were then used to evaluate theaccuracy of the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). TheAPHH winter and summer campaigns took place in November and December 2016and May and June 2017, respectively. The largest VOC fluxes observed were ofsmall oxygenated compounds such as methanol, ethanol + formic acid andacetaldehyde, with average emission rates of 8.31 ± 8.5, 3.97 ± 3.9 and 1.83 ± 2.0 nmol m−2 s−1, respectively, in the summer.A large flux of isoprene was observed in the summer, with an average emissionrate of 5.31 ± 7.7 nmol m−2 s−1. While oxygenated VOCs madeup 60 % of the molar VOC flux measured, when fluxes were scaled by ozoneformation potential and peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN) formation potential thehigh reactivity of isoprene and monoterpenes meant that these speciesrepresented 30 % and 28 % of the flux contribution to ozone and PANformation potential, respectively. Comparison of measured fluxes with theemission inventory showed that the inventory failed to capture the magnitudeofmore »VOC emissions at the local scale.« less