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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 31, 2025
  2. Reinforcement learning (RL) has shown its viability to learn when an agent interacts continually with the environment to optimize a policy. This work presents a memristor-based deep reinforcement learning (Mem-DRL) system for on-chip training, where the learning process takes place in a dynamic cartpole environment. Memristor device variability is taken into account to make the study more realistic. The proposed system utilized an analog ReLu module to reduce analog to digital converter usage. The analog Mem-DRL system consumed 191 times less energy than an optimized digital FP16 computing system. Our Mem-DRL system reduced the ADC usages by 40%, which led to reduced the overall system energy by 42%. Mem-DRL is 2.4 times faster than the FP16 system and performs 9.27 GOPS during DRL training. The system exhibited an energy efficiency of 23.8 TOPS/W. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 18, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 28, 2024
  4. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is moving towards the edge. Training an AI model for edge computing on a centralized server increases latency, and the privacy of edge users is jeopardized due to private data transfer through a less secure communication channels. Additionally, existing high-power computing systems are battling with memory and data transfer bottlenecks between the processor and memory. Federated Learning (FL) is a collaborative AI learning paradigm for distributed local devices that operates without transferring local data. Local participant devices share the updated network parameters with the central server instead of sending the original data. The central server updates the global AI model and deploys the model to the local clients. As the local data resides only on the edge, these devices need to be protected from cyberattacks. The Federated Intrusion Detection System (FIDS) could be a viable system to protect edge devices as opposed to a centralized protection system. However, on-device training of the model in resource constrained devices may suffer from excessive power drain, in addition to memory and area overhead. In this work we present a memristor based system for AI training on edge devices. Memristor devices are ideal candidates for processing in memory, as their dynamic resistance properties allow them to perform multiply-add operations in parallel in the analog domain with extreme efficiency. Alternatively, existing CMOS-based PIM systems are typically developed for edge inference based on pretrained weights, and are not equipped for on-chip training. We show the effectiveness of the system, where successful learning and recognition is achieved completely within edge devices. The classification accuracy of the memristor system shows negligible loss when compared a software implementation. To the best of our knowledge, this first demonstration of a memristor based federated learning system. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this system as an intrusion detection platform for edge devices, although given the flexibility of the learning algorithm, it could be used to enhance many types of on board leaning and classification applications. 
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  5. null (Ed.)