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  1. A private learner is trained on a sample of labeled points and generates a hypothesis that can be used for predicting the labels of newly sampled points while protecting the privacy of the training set [Kasiviswannathan et al., FOCS 2008]. Past research uncovered that private learners may need to exhibit significantly higher sample complexity than non-private learners as is the case of learning of one-dimensional threshold functions [Bun et al., FOCS 2015, Alon et al., STOC 2019]. We explore prediction as an alternative to learning. A predictor answers a stream of classification queries instead of outputting a hypothesis. Earlier work has considered a private prediction model with a single classification query [Dwork and Feldman, COLT 2018]. We observe that when answering a stream of queries, a predictor must modify the hypothesis it uses over time, and in a manner that cannot rely solely on the training set. We introduce private everlasting prediction taking into account the privacy of both the training set and the (adaptively chosen) queries made to the predictor. We then present a generic construction of private everlasting predictors in the PAC model. The sample complexity of the initial training sample in our construction is quadratic (up to polylog factors) in the VC dimension of the concept class. Our construction allows prediction for all concept classes with finite VC dimension, and in particular threshold functions over infinite domains, for which (traditional) private learning is known to be impossible. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 10, 2024
  2. Abstract Objectives

    Racial disparities in kidney transplant access and posttransplant outcomes exist between non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) patients in the United States, with the site of care being a key contributor. Using multi-site data to examine the effect of site of care on racial disparities, the key challenge is the dilemma in sharing patient-level data due to regulations for protecting patients’ privacy.

    Materials and Methods

    We developed a federated learning framework, named dGEM-disparity (decentralized algorithm for Generalized linear mixed Effect Model for disparity quantification). Consisting of 2 modules, dGEM-disparity first provides accurately estimated common effects and calibrated hospital-specific effects by requiring only aggregated data from each center and then adopts a counterfactual modeling approach to assess whether the graft failure rates differ if NHB patients had been admitted at transplant centers in the same distribution as NHW patients were admitted.

    Results

    Utilizing United States Renal Data System data from 39 043 adult patients across 73 transplant centers over 10 years, we found that if NHB patients had followed the distribution of NHW patients in admissions, there would be 38 fewer deaths or graft failures per 10 000 NHB patients (95% CI, 35-40) within 1 year of receiving a kidney transplant on average.

    Discussion

    The proposed framework facilitates efficient collaborations in clinical research networks. Additionally, the framework, by using counterfactual modeling to calculate the event rate, allows us to investigate contributions to racial disparities that may occur at the level of site of care.

    Conclusions

    Our framework is broadly applicable to other decentralized datasets and disparities research related to differential access to care. Ultimately, our proposed framework will advance equity in human health by identifying and addressing hospital-level racial disparities.

     
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 23, 2025
  5. Gas-phase oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) can contribute significantly to both atmospheric new particle growth and secondary organic aerosol formation. Precursor apportionment of atmospheric OOMs connects them with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since atmospheric OOMs are often highly functionalized products of multistep reactions, it is challenging to reveal the complete mapping relationships between OOMs and their precursors. In this study, we demonstrate that the machine learning method is useful in attributing atmospheric OOMs to their precursors using several chemical indicators, such as O/C ratio and H/C ratio. The model is trained and tested using data acquired in controlled laboratory experiments, covering the oxidation products of four main types of VOCs (isoprene, monoterpenes, aliphatics, and aromatics). Then, the model is used for analyzing atmospheric OOMs measured in both urban Beijing and a boreal forest environment in southern Finland. The results suggest that atmospheric OOMs in these two environments can be reasonably assigned to their precursors. Beijing is an anthropogenic VOC dominated environment with ∼64% aromatic and aliphatic OOMs, and the other boreal forested area has ∼76% monoterpene OOMs. This pilot study shows that machine learning can be a promising tool in atmospheric chemistry for connecting the dots. 
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  6. Abstract The interaction between nitrogen monoxide (NO) and organic peroxy radicals (RO 2 ) greatly impacts the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM), the key precursors of secondary organic aerosols. It has been thought that HOM production can be significantly suppressed by NO even at low concentrations. Here, we perform dedicated experiments focusing on HOM formation from monoterpenes at low NO concentrations (0 – 82 pptv). We demonstrate that such low NO can enhance HOM production by modulating the RO 2 loss and favoring the formation of alkoxy radicals that can continue to autoxidize through isomerization. These insights suggest that HOM yields from typical boreal forest emissions can vary between 2.5%-6.5%, and HOM formation will not be completely inhibited even at high NO concentrations. Our findings challenge the notion that NO monotonically reduces HOM yields by extending the knowledge of RO 2 -NO interactions to the low-NO regime. This represents a major advance towards an accurate assessment of HOM budgets, especially in low-NO environments, which prevails in the pre-industrial atmosphere, pristine areas, and the upper boundary layer. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  7. Abstract Objective Supporting public health research and the public’s situational awareness during a pandemic requires continuous dissemination of infectious disease surveillance data. Legislation, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and recent state-level regulations, permits sharing deidentified person-level data; however, current deidentification approaches are limited. Namely, they are inefficient, relying on retrospective disclosure risk assessments, and do not flex with changes in infection rates or population demographics over time. In this paper, we introduce a framework to dynamically adapt deidentification for near-real time sharing of person-level surveillance data. Materials and Methods The framework leverages a simulation mechanism, capable of application at any geographic level, to forecast the reidentification risk of sharing the data under a wide range of generalization policies. The estimates inform weekly, prospective policy selection to maintain the proportion of records corresponding to a group size less than 11 (PK11) at or below 0.1. Fixing the policy at the start of each week facilitates timely dataset updates and supports sharing granular date information. We use August 2020 through October 2021 case data from Johns Hopkins University and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to demonstrate the framework’s effectiveness in maintaining the PK11 threshold of 0.01. Results When sharing COVID-19 county-level case data across all US counties, the framework’s approach meets the threshold for 96.2% of daily data releases, while a policy based on current deidentification techniques meets the threshold for 32.3%. Conclusion Periodically adapting the data publication policies preserves privacy while enhancing public health utility through timely updates and sharing epidemiologically critical features. 
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  8. The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for broad dissemination of case surveillance data. Local and global public health agencies have initiated efforts to do so, but there remains limited data available, due in part to concerns over privacy. As a result, current COVID-19 case surveillance data sharing policies are based on strong adversarial assumptions, such as the expectation that an attacker can readily re-identify individuals based on their distinguishability in a dataset. There are various re-identification risk measures to account for adversarial capabilities; however, the current array insufficiently accounts for real world data challenges - particularly issues of missing records in resources of identifiable records that adversaries may rely upon to execute attacks (e.g., 10 50-year-old male in the de-identified dataset vs. 5 50-year-old male in the identified dataset). In this paper, we introduce several approaches to amend such risk measures and assess re-identification risk in light of how an attacker's capabilities relate to missing records. We demonstrate the potential for these measures through a record linkage attack using COVID-19 case surveillance data and voter registration records in the state of Florida. Our findings demonstrate that adversarial assumptions, as realized in a risk measure, can dramatically affect re-identification risk estimation. Notably, we show that the re-identification risk is likely to be substantially smaller than the typical risk thresholds, which suggests that more detailed data could be shared publicly than is currently the case. 
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  9. Biogenic vapors form new particles in the atmosphere, affecting global climate. The contributions of monoterpenes and isoprene to new particle formation (NPF) have been extensively studied. However, sesquiterpenes have received little attention despite a potentially important role due to their high molecular weight. Via chamber experiments performed under atmospheric conditions, we report biogenic NPF resulting from the oxidation of pure mixtures of β-caryophyllene, α-pinene, and isoprene, which produces oxygenated compounds over a wide range of volatilities. We find that a class of vapors termed ultralow-volatility organic compounds (ULVOCs) are highly efficient nucleators and quantitatively determine NPF efficiency. When compared with a mixture of isoprene and monoterpene alone, adding only 2% sesquiterpene increases the ULVOC yield and doubles the formation rate. Thus, sesquiterpene emissions need to be included in assessments of global aerosol concentrations in pristine climates where biogenic NPF is expected to be a major source of cloud condensation nuclei.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 8, 2024