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  1. Abstract With specific fold patterns, a 2D flat origami can be converted into a complex 3D structure under an external driving force. Origami inspires the engineering design of many self-assembled and re-configurable devices. This work aims to apply the level set-based topology optimization to the generative design of origami structures. The origami mechanism is simulated using thin shell models where the deformation on the surface and the deformation in the normal direction can be simplified and well captured. Moreover, the fold pattern is implicitly represented by the boundaries of the level set function. The folding topology is optimized by minimizing a new multiobjective function that balances kinematic performance with structural stiffness and geometric requirements. Besides regular straight folds, our proposed model can mimic crease patterns with curved folds. With the folding curves implicitly represented, the curvature flow is utilized to control the complexity of the folds generated. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by the computer generation and physical validation of two thin shell origami designs.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. This paper proposes a new way of designing and fabricating conformal flexible electronics on free-form surfaces, which can generate woven flexible electronics designs conforming to free-form 3D shapes with 2D printed electronic circuits. Utilizing our recently proposed foliation-based 3D weaving techniques, we can reap unprecedented advantages in conventional 2D electronic printing. The method is based on the foliation theory in differential geometry, which divides a surface into parallel leaves. Given a surface with circuit design, we first calculate a graph-value harmonic map and then create two sets of harmonic foliations perpendicular to each other. As the circuits are processed as the texture on the surface, they are separated and attached to each leaf. The warp and weft threads are then created and manually woven to reconstruct the surface and reconnect the circuits. Notably, The circuits are printed in 2D, which uniquely differentiates the proposed method from others. Compared with costly conformal 3D electronic printing methods requiring 5-axis CNC machines, our method is more reliable, more efficient, and economical. Moreover, the Harmonic foliation theory assures smoothness and orthogonality between every pair of woven yarns, which guarantees the precision of the flexible electronics woven on the surface. The proposed method provides anmore »alternative solution to the design and physical realization of surface electronic textiles for various applications, including wearable electronics, sheet metal craft, architectural designs, and smart woven-composite parts with conformal sensors in the automotive and aerospace industry. The performance of the proposed method is depicted using two examples.« less
  3. In this paper, we propose a new method to approach the problem of structural shape and topology optimization on manifold (or free-form surfaces). A manifold is conformally mapped onto a 2D rectangle domain, where the level set functions are defined. With conformal mapping, the corresponding covariant derivatives on a manifold can be represented by the Euclidean differential operators multiplied by a scalar. Therefore, the topology optimization problem on a free-form surface can be formulated as a 2D problem in the Euclidean space. To evolve the boundaries on a free-form surface, we propose a modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation and solve it on a 2D plane following the conformal geometry theory. In this way, we can fully utilize the conventional level-set-based computational framework. Compared with other established approaches which need to project the Euclidean differential operators to the manifold, the computational difficulty of our method is highly reduced while all the advantages of conventional level set methods are well preserved. We hope the proposed computational framework can provide a timely solution to increasing applications involving innovative structural designs on free-form surfaces in different engineering fields.