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  1. null (Ed.)
  2. In this paper, we introduce SCRAMBLE, as a novel logic locking solution for sequential circuits while the access to the scan chain is restricted. The SCRAMBLE could be used to lock an FSM by hiding its state transition graph (STG) among a large number of key-controlled false transitions. Also, it could be used to lock sequential circuits (sequential datapath) by hiding the timing paths' connectivity among a large number of key-controlled false connections. Besides, the structure of SCRAMBLE allows us to engage this scheme as a new scan chain locking solution by hiding the correct scan chain sequence among a large number of the key-controlled false sequences. We demonstrate that the proposed scheme resists against both (1) the 2-stage attacks on FSM, and (2) SAT attacks integrated with unrolling as well as bounded-modelchecking. We have discussed two variants of SCRAMBLE: (I) Connectivity SCRAMBLE (SCRAMBLE-C), and (b) Logic SCRAMBLE (SCRAMBLE-L). The SCRAMBLE-C relies on the SAT-hard and key-controlled modules that are built using near non-blocking logarithmic switching networks. The SCRAMBLE-L uses input multiplexing techniques to hide a part of the FSM in a memory. In the result section, we describe the effectiveness of each variant against state-of-the-art attacks. 
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  3. Abstract—In this paper, we introduce DFSSD, a novel logic locking solution for sequential and FSM circuits with a restricted (locked) access to the scan chain. DFSSD combines two techniques for obfuscation: (1) Deep Faults, and (2) Shallow State Duality. Both techniques are specifically designed to resist against sequential SAT attacks based on bounded model checking. The shallow state duality prevents a sequential SAT attack from taking a shortcut for early termination without running an exhaustive unbounded model checker to assess if the attack could be terminated. The deep fault, on the other hand, provides a designer with a technique for building deep, yet key recoverable faults that could not be discovered by sequential SAT (and bounded model checker based) attacks in a reasonable time. 
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  4. In this paper, we propose a novel and SAT-resistant logic-locking technique, denoted as Full-Lock, to obfuscate and protect the hardware against threats including IP-piracy and reverse-engineering. The Full- Lock is constructed using a set of small-size fully Programmable Logic and Routing block (PLR) networks. The PLRs are SAT-hard instances with reasonable power, performance and area overheads which are used to obfuscate (1) the routing of a group of selected wires and (2) the logic of the gates leading and proceeding the selected wires. The Full-Lock resists removal attacks and breaks a SAT attack by significantly increasing the complexity of each SAT iteration. 
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  5. To reduce the cost of ICs and to meet the market's demand, a considerable portion of manufacturing supply chain, including silicon fabrication, packaging and testing may be pushed offshore. Utilizing a global IC manufacturing supply chain, and inclusion of non-trusted parties in the supply chain has raised concerns over security and trust related challenges including those of overproduction, counterfeiting, IP piracy, and Hardware Trojans to name a few. To reduce the risk of IC manufacturing in an untrusted and globally distributed supply chain, the researchers have proposed various locking and obfuscation mechanisms for hiding the functionality of the ICs during the manufacturing, that requires the activation of the IP after fabrication using the key value(s) that is only known to the IP/IC owner. At the same time, many such proposed obfuscation and locking mechanisms are broken with attacks that exploit the inherent vulnerabilities in such solutions. The past decade of research in this area, has resulted in many such defense and attack solutions. In this paper, we review a decade of research on hardware obfuscation from an attacker perspective, elaborate on attack and defense lessons learned, and discuss future directions that could be exploited for building stronger defenses. 
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  6. In this paper, we introduce the Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) attack on obfuscated circuits. The proposed attack is the superset of Satisfiability (SAT) attack, with many additional features. It uses one or more theory solvers in addition to its internal SAT solver. For this reason, it is capable of modeling far more complex behaviors and could formulate much stronger attacks. In this paper, we illustrate that the use of theory solvers enables the SMT to carry attacks that are not possible by SAT formulated attacks. As an example of its capabilities, we use the SMT attack to break a recent obfuscation scheme that uses key values to alter delay properties (setup and hold time) of a circuit to remain SAT hard. Considering that the logic delay is not a Boolean logical property, the targeted obfuscation mechanism is not breakable by a SAT attack. However, in this paper, we illustrate that the proposed SMT attack, by deploying a simple graph theory solver, can model and break this obfuscation scheme in few minutes. We describe how the SMT attack could be used in one of four different attack modes: (1) We explain how SMT attack could be reduced to a SAT attack, (2) how the SMT attack could be carried out in Eager, and (3) Lazy approach, and finally (4) we introduce the Accelerated SMT (AccSMT) attack that offers significant speed-up to SAT attack. Additionally, we explain how AccSMT attack could be used as an approximate attack when facing SMT-Hard obfuscation schemes. 
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  7. In this paper, we introduce the Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) attack on obfuscated circuits. The proposed attack is the superset of Satisfiability (SAT) attack, with many additional features. It uses one or more theory solvers in addition to its internal SAT solver. For this reason, it is capable of modeling far more complex behaviors and could formulate much stronger attacks. In this paper, we illustrate that the use of theory solvers enables the SMT to carry attacks that are not possible by SAT formulated attacks. As an example of its capabilities, we use the SMT attack to break a recent obfuscation scheme that uses key values to alter delay properties (setup and hold time) of a circuit to remain SAT hard. Considering that the logic delay is not a Boolean logical property, the targeted obfuscation mechanism is not breakable by a SAT attack. However, in this paper, we illustrate that the proposed SMT attack, by deploying a simple graph theory solver, can model and break this obfuscation scheme in few minutes. We describe how the SMT attack could be used in one of four different attack modes:(1) We explain how SMT attack could be reduced to a SAT attack,(2) how the SMT attack could be carried out in Eager, and (3) Lazy approach, and finally (4) we introduce the Accelerated SMT (AccSMT) attack that offers significant speed-up to SAT attack. Additionally, we explain how AccSMT attack could be used as an approximate attack when facing SMT-Hard obfuscation schemes. 
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  8. In this work, we propose LUT-Lock, a novel Look-Up-Table-based netlist obfuscation algorithm, for protecting the intellectual property that is mapped to an FPGA bitstream or an ASIC netlist. We, first, illustrate the effectiveness of several key features that make the LUT-based obfuscation more resilient against SAT attacks and then we embed the proposed key features into our proposed LUT-Lock algorithm. We illustrate that LUT-Lock maximizes the resiliency of the LUT-based obfuscation against SAT attacks by forcing a near exponential increase in the execution time of a SAT solver with respect to the number of obfuscated gates. Hence, by adopting LUT-Lock algorithm, SAT attack execution time could be made unreasonably long by increasing the number of utilized LUTs. 
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