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  1. Abstract

    A separable covariance model can describe the among-row and among-column correlations of a random matrix and permits likelihood-based inference with a very small sample size. However, if the assumption of separability is not met, data analysis with a separable model may misrepresent important dependence patterns in the data. As a compromise between separable and unstructured covariance estimation, we decompose a covariance matrix into a separable component and a complementary ‘core’ covariance matrix. This decomposition defines a new covariance matrix decomposition that makes use of the parsimony and interpretability of a separable covariance model, yet fully describes covariance matrices that are non-separable. This decomposition motivates a new type of shrinkage estimator, obtained by appropriately shrinking the core of the sample covariance matrix, that adapts to the degree of separability of the population covariance matrix.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 20, 2024
  2. Abstract High-order clustering aims to identify heterogeneous substructures in multiway datasets that arise commonly in neuroimaging, genomics, social network studies, etc. The non-convex and discontinuous nature of this problem pose significant challenges in both statistics and computation. In this paper, we propose a tensor block model and the computationally efficient methods, high-order Lloyd algorithm (HLloyd), and high-order spectral clustering (HSC), for high-order clustering. The convergence guarantees and statistical optimality are established for the proposed procedure under a mild sub-Gaussian noise assumption. Under the Gaussian tensor block model, we completely characterise the statistical-computational trade-off for achieving high-order exact clustering based on three different signal-to-noise ratio regimes. The analysis relies on new techniques of high-order spectral perturbation analysis and a ‘singular-value-gap-free’ error bound in tensor estimation, which are substantially different from the matrix spectral analyses in the literature. Finally, we show the merits of the proposed procedures via extensive experiments on both synthetic and real datasets. 
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