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  1. Extensive efforts have been made to understand and improve the fairness of machine learning models based on observational metrics, especially in high-stakes domains such as medical insurance, education, and hiring decisions. However, there is a lack of certified fairness considering the end-to-end performance of an ML model. In this paper, we first formulate the certified fairness of an ML model trained on a given data distribution as an optimization problem based on the model performance loss bound on a fairness constrained distribution, which is within bounded distributional distance with the training distribution. We then propose a general fairness certification framework and instantiate it for both sensitive shifting and general shifting scenarios. In particular, we propose to solve the optimization problem by decomposing the original data distribution into analytical subpopulations and proving the convexity of the subproblems to solve them. We evaluate our certified fairness on six real-world datasets and show that our certification is tight in the sensitive shifting scenario and provides non-trivial certification under general shifting. Our framework is flexible to integrate additional non-skewness constraints and we show that it provides even tighter certification under different real-world scenarios. We also compare our certified fairness bound with adapted existing distributionalmore »robustness bounds on Gaussian data and demonstrate that our method is significantly tighter.« less
  2. Matrix factorization (MF) approximates unobserved ratings in a rating matrix, whose rows correspond to users and columns correspond to items to be rated, and has been serving as a fundamental building block in recommendation systems. This paper comprehensively studies the problem of matrix factorization in different federated learning (FL) settings, where a set of parties want to cooperate in training but refuse to share data directly. We first propose a generic algorithmic framework for various settings of federated matrix factorization (FMF) and provide a theoretical convergence guarantee. We then systematically characterize privacy-leakage risks in data collection, training, and publishing stages for three different settings and introduce privacy notions to provide end-to-end privacy protections. The first one is vertical federated learning (VFL), where multiple parties have the ratings from the same set of users but on disjoint sets of items. The second one is horizontal federated learning (HFL), where parties have ratings from different sets of users but on the same set of items. The third setting is local federated learning (LFL), where the ratings of the users are only stored on their local devices. We introduce adapted versions of FMF with the privacy notions guaranteed in the three settings. Inmore »particular, a new private learning technique called embedding clipping is introduced and used in all the three settings to ensure differential privacy. For the LFL setting, we combine differential privacy with secure aggregation to protect the communication between user devices and the server with a strength similar to the local differential privacy model, but much better accuracy. We perform experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches.« less
  3. As machine learning (ML) systems become pervasive, safeguarding their security is critical. However, recently it has been demonstrated that motivated adversaries are able to mislead ML systems by perturbing test data using semantic transformations. While there exists a rich body of research providing provable robustness guarantees for ML models against ℓp norm bounded adversarial perturbations, guarantees against semantic perturbations remain largely underexplored. In this paper, we provide TSS -- a unified framework for certifying ML robustness against general adversarial semantic transformations. First, depending on the properties of each transformation, we divide common transformations into two categories, namely resolvable (e.g., Gaussian blur) and differentially resolvable (e.g., rotation) transformations. For the former, we propose transformation-specific randomized smoothing strategies and obtain strong robustness certification. The latter category covers transformations that involve interpolation errors, and we propose a novel approach based on stratified sampling to certify the robustness. Our framework TSS leverages these certification strategies and combines with consistency-enhanced training to provide rigorous certification of robustness. We conduct extensive experiments on over ten types of challenging semantic transformations and show that TSS significantly outperforms the state of the art. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, TSS is the first approach that achieves nontrivialmore »certified robustness on the large-scale ImageNet dataset. For instance, our framework achieves 30.4% certified robust accuracy against rotation attack (within ±30∘) on ImageNet. Moreover, to consider a broader range of transformations, we show TSS is also robust against adaptive attacks and unforeseen image corruptions such as CIFAR-10-C and ImageNet-C.« less