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  1. As artificial intelligence (AI) becomes more prominent in children’s lives, an increasing number of researchers and practitioners have underscored the importance of integrating AI as learning content in K-12. Despite the recent efforts in developing AI curricula and guiding frameworks in AI education, the educational opportunities often do not provide equally engaging and inclusive learning experiences for all learners. To promote equality and equity in society and increase competitiveness in the AI workforce, it is essential to broaden participation in AI education. However, a framework that guides teachers and learning designers in designing inclusive learning opportunities tailored for AI education is lacking. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) provides guidelines for making learning more inclusive across disciplines. Based on the principles of UDL, this paper proposes a framework to guide the design of inclusive AI learning. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify AI learning design-related frameworks and synthesized them into our proposed framework, which includes the core component of AI learning content (i.e., five big ideas), anchored by the three UDL principles (the “why,” “what,” and “how” of learning), and six praxes with pedagogical examples of AI instruction. Alongside this, we present an illustrative example of the application of our proposed framework in the context of a middle school AI summer camp. We hope this paper will guide researchers and practitioners in designing more inclusive AI learning experiences. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2025

    We use 3653 (2661 RRab, 992 RRc) RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) with 7D (3D position, 3D velocity, and metallicity) information selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, and Gaia EDR3, and divide the sample into two Oosterhoff groups (Oo I and Oo II) according to their amplitude–period behaviour in the Bailey diagram. We present a comparative study of these two groups based on chemistry, kinematics, and dynamics. We find that Oo I RRLs are relatively more metal-rich, with predominately radially dominated orbits and large eccentricities, while Oo II RRLs are relatively more metal-poor, and have mildly radially dominated orbits. The Oosterhoff dichotomy of the Milky Way’s halo is more apparent for the inner-halo region than for the outer-halo region. Additionally, we also search for this phenomenon in the haloes of the two largest satellite galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic clouds, and compare over different bins in metallicity. We find that the Oosterhoff dichotomy is not immutable, and varies based on position in the Galaxy and from galaxy to galaxy. We conclude that the Oosterhoff dichotomy is the result of a combination of stellar and galactic evolution, and that it is much more complex than the dichotomy originally identified in Galactic globular clusters.

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    Sr(Ti 0.3 Fe 0.7 )O 3−δ (STF) and the associated exsolution electrodes Sr 0.95 (Ti 0.3 Fe 0.63 Ru 0.07 )O 3−δ (STFR), or Sr 0.95 (Ti 0.3 Fe 0.63 Ni 0.07 )O 3−δ (STFN) are alternatives to Ni-based cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOCs). They can provide improved tolerance to redox cycling and fuel impurities, and may allow direct operation with hydrocarbon fuels. However, such perovskite-oxide-based electrodes present processing challenges for co-sintering with thin electrolytes to make fuel electrode supported SOCs. Thus, they have been mostly limited to electrolyte-supported SOCs. Here, we report the first example of the application of perovskite oxide fuel electrodes in novel oxygen electrode supported SOCs (OESCs) with thin YSZ electrolytes, and demonstrate their excellent performance. The OESCs have La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3−δ –Zr 0.92 Y 0.16 O 2−δ (LSM–YSZ) oxygen electrode-supports that are enhanced via infiltration of SrTi 0.3 Fe 0.6 Co 0.1 O 3−δ , while the fuel electrodes are either Ni-YSZ, STF, STFN, or STFR. Fuel cell power density as high as 1.12 W cm −2 is obtained at 0.7 V and 800 °C in humidified hydrogen and air with the STFR electrode, 60% higher than the same cell made with a Ni-YSZ electrode. Electrolysis current density as high as −1.72 A cm −2 is obtained at 1.3 V and 800 °C in 50% H 2 O to 50% H 2 mode; the STFR cell yields a value 72% higher than the same cell made with a Ni-YSZ electrode, and competitive with the widely used conventional Ni-YSZ-supported cells. The high performance is due in part to the low resistance of the thin YSZ electrolyte, and also to the low fuel electrode polarization resistance, which decreases with fuel electrode in the order: Ni-YSZ > STF > STFN > STFR. The high performance of the latter two electrodes is due to exsolution of catalytic metal nanoparticles; the results are discussed in terms of the microstructure and properties of each electrode material, and surface oxygen exchange resistance values are obtained over a range of conditions for STF, STFN, and STFN. The STF fuel electrodes also provide good stability during redox cycling. 
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  6. Sr(Ti 1−x Fe x )O 3−δ (STF) has recently been explored as an oxygen electrode for solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOCs). Model thin film electrode studies show oxygen surface exchange rates that generally improve with increasing Fe content when x < 0.5, and are comparable to the best Co-containing perovskite electrode materials. Recent results on porous electrodes with the specific composition Sr(Ti 0.3 Fe 0.7 )O 3−δ show excellent electrode performance and stability, but other compositions have not been tested. Here we report results for porous electrodes with a range of compositions from x = 0.5 to 0.9. The polarization resistance decreases with increasing Fe content up to x = 0.7, but increases for further increases in x . This results from the interaction of two effects – the oxygen solid state diffusion coefficient increases with increasing x , but the electrode surface area and surface oxygen exchange rate decrease due to increased sinterability and Sr surface segregation for the Fe-rich compositions. Symmetric cells showed no degradation during 1000 h life tests at 700 °C even at a current density of 1.5 A cm −2 , showing that all the STF electrode compositions worked stably in both fuel cell mode and electrolysis modes. The excellent stability may be explained by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results showing that the amount of surface segregated Sr did not change during the long-term testing, and by relatively low polarization resistances that help avoid electrode delamination. 
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