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  1. Vision Transformers (ViTs) have achieved state-of-the-art performance on various vision tasks. However, ViTs’ self-attention module is still arguably a major bottleneck, limiting their achievable hardware efficiency and more extensive applications to resource constrained platforms. Meanwhile, existing accelerators dedicated to NLP Transformers are not optimal for ViTs. This is because there is a large difference between ViTs and Transformers for natural language processing (NLP) tasks: ViTs have a relatively fixed number of input tokens, whose attention maps can be pruned by up to 90% even with fixed sparse patterns, without severely hurting the model accuracy (e.g., <=1.5% under 90% pruning ratio); while NLP Transformers need to handle input sequences of varying numbers of tokens and rely on on-the-fly predictions of dynamic sparse attention patterns for each input to achieve a decent sparsity (e.g., >=50%). To this end, we propose a dedicated algorithm and accelerator co-design framework dubbed ViTCoD for accelerating ViTs. Specifically, on the algorithm level, ViTCoD prunes and polarizes the attention maps to have either denser or sparser fixed patterns for regularizing two levels of workloads without hurting the accuracy, largely reducing the attention computations while leaving room for alleviating the remaining dominant data movements; on top of that, we further integrate a lightweight and learnable auto-encoder module to enable trading the dominant high-cost data movements for lower-cost computations. On the hardware level, we develop a dedicated accelerator to simultaneously coordinate the aforementioned enforced denser and sparser workloads for boosted hardware utilization, while integrating on-chip encoder and decoder engines to leverage ViTCoD’s algorithm pipeline for much reduced data movements. Extensive experiments and ablation studies validate that ViTCoD largely reduces the dominant data movement costs, achieving speedups of up to 235.3×, 142.9×, 86.0×, 10.1×, and 6.8× over general computing platforms CPUs, EdgeGPUs, GPUs, and prior-art Transformer accelerators SpAtten and Sanger under an attention sparsity of 90%, respectively. Our code implementation is available at 
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  2. There exists a gap in terms of the signals provided by pacemakers (i.e., intracardiac electrogram (EGM)) and the signals doctors use (i.e., 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG)) to diagnose abnormal rhythms. Therefore, the former, even if remotely transmitted, are not sufficient for doctors to provide a precise diagnosis, let alone make a timely intervention. To close this gap and make a heuristic step towards real-time critical intervention in instant response to irregular and infrequent ventricular rhythms, we propose a new framework dubbed RT-RCG to automatically search for (1) efficient Deep Neural Network (DNN) structures and then (2) corresponding accelerators, to enable R eal- T ime and high-quality R econstruction of E C G signals from E G M signals. Specifically, RT-RCG proposes a new DNN search space tailored for ECG reconstruction from EGM signals and incorporates a differentiable acceleration search (DAS) engine to efficiently navigate over the large and discrete accelerator design space to generate optimized accelerators. Extensive experiments and ablation studies under various settings consistently validate the effectiveness of our RT-RCG. To the best of our knowledge, RT-RCG is the first to leverage neural architecture search (NAS) to simultaneously tackle both reconstruction efficacy and efficiency. 
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  3. We present a first-of-its-kind ultra-compact intelligent camera system, dubbed i-FlatCam, including a lensless camera with a computational (Comp.) chip. It highlights (1) a predict-then-focus eye tracking pipeline for boosted efficiency without compromising the accuracy, (2) a unified compression scheme for single-chip processing and improved frame rate per second (FPS), and (3) dedicated intra-channel reuse design for depth-wise convolutional layers (DW-CONV) to increase utilization. i-FlatCam demonstrates the first eye tracking pipeline with a lensless camera and achieves 3.16 degrees of accuracy, 253 FPS, 91.49 µJ/Frame, and 6.7mm×8.9mm×1.2mm camera form factor, paving the way for next-generation Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) devices. 
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