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  1. Atomic surface cleaning has enabled successful growth of ultrawide bandgap nitrogen-polar aluminum nitride semiconductors. 
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  2. The polarization difference and band offset between Al(Ga)N and GaN induce two-dimensional (2D) free carriers in Al(Ga)N/GaN heterojunctions without any chemical doping. A high-density 2D electron gas (2DEG), analogous to the recently discovered 2D hole gas in a metal-polar structure, is predicted in a N-polar pseudomorphic GaN/Al(Ga)N heterostructure on unstrained AlN. We report the observation of such 2DEGs in N-polar undoped pseudomorphic GaN/AlGaN heterostructures on single-crystal AlN substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. With a high electron density of ∼4.3 ×1013/cm2 that maintains down to cryogenic temperatures and a room temperature electron mobility of ∼450 cm2/V s, a sheet resistance as low as ∼320 Ω/◻ is achieved in a structure with an 8 nm GaN layer. These results indicate significant potential of AlN platform for future high-power RF electronics based on N-polar III-nitride high electron mobility transistors.

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  3. Abstract

    High hole densities are desired in p‐channel field effect transistors to improve the speed and on‐currents. Building on the recently discovered undoped, polarization‐induced GaN/AlN 2D hole gas (2DHG), this work demonstrates the tuning of the piezoelectric polarization difference across the heterointerface by introducing indium in the GaN channel. Using careful design and epitaxial growths, these pseudomorphic (In)GaN/AlN heterostructures result in some of the highest carrier densities of >1014cm−2in a III‐nitride heterostructure—just an order below the intrinsic crystal limit of ≈1015cm−2. These ultra‐high density InGaN/AlN 2DHGs show room temperature mobilities of 0.5–4 cm2V−1s−1and do not freeze out at low temperatures. A characteristic alloy fluctuation energy of 1.0 eV for hole scattering in InGaN alloy is proposed based on the experiments.

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  4. Polarization-induced (Pi) distributed or bulk doping in GaN, with a zero dopant ionization energy, can reduce temperature or frequency dispersions in impurity-doped p–n junctions caused by the deep-acceptor-nature of Mg, thus offering GaN power devices promising prospects. Before comprehensively assessing the benefits of Pi-doping, ideal junction behaviors and high-voltage capabilities should be confirmed. In this work, we demonstrate near-ideal forward and reverse I–V characteristics in Pi-doped GaN power p–n diodes, which incorporates linearly graded, coherently strained AlGaN layers. Hall measurements show a net increase in the hole concentration of 8.9 × 1016 cm−3in the p-layer as a result of the polarization charge. In the Pi-doped n-layer, a record-low electron concentration of 2.5 × 1016 cm−3is realized due to the gradual grading of Al0-0.72GaN over 1  μm. The Pi-doped p–n diodes have an ideality factor as low as 1.1 and a 0.10 V higher turn-on voltage than the impurity-doped p–n diodes due to the increase in the bandgap at the junction edge. A differential specific on-resistance of 0.1 mΩ cm2is extracted from the Pi-doped p–n diodes, similar with the impurity-doped counterpart. The Pi-doped diodes show an avalanche breakdown voltage of ∼1.25 kV, indicating a high reverse blocking capability even without an ideal edge-termination. This work confirms that distributed Pi-doping can be incorporated in high-voltage GaN power devices to increase hole concentrations while maintaining excellent junction properties.

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