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  1. Abstract

    We present the discovery of TOI-1994b, a low-mass brown dwarf transiting a hot subgiant star on a moderately eccentric orbit. TOI-1994 has an effective temperature of7700410+720K, Vmagnitude of 10.51 mag and log(g) of3.9820.065+0.067. The brown dwarf has a mass of22.12.5+2.6MJ, a period of 4.034 days, an eccentricity of0.3410.059+0.054, and a radius of1.2200.071+0.082RJ. TOI-1994b is more eccentric than other transiting brown dwarfs with similar masses and periods. The population of low-mass brown dwarfs may have properties similar to planetary systems if they were formed in the same way, but the short orbital period and high eccentricity of TOI-1994b may contrast this theory. An evolved host provides a valuable opportunity to understand the influence stellar evolution has on the substellar companion’s fundamental properties. With precise age, mass, and radius, the global analysis and characterization of TOI-1994b augments the small number of transiting brown dwarfs and allows the testing of substellar evolution models.

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    In this work, we present the discovery and confirmation of two hot Jupiters orbiting red giant stars, TOI-4377 b and TOI-4551 b, observed by Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite in the Southern ecliptic hemisphere and later followed-up with radial-velocity (RV) observations. For TOI-4377 b, we report a mass of $0.957^{+0.089}_{-0.087} \ M_\mathrm{J}$ and a inflated radius of 1.348 ± 0.081 RJ orbiting an evolved intermediate-mass star (1.36 M⊙ and 3.52 R⊙; TIC 394918211) on a period of of 4.378 d. For TOI-4551 b, we report a mass of 1.49 ± 0.13 MJ and a radius that is not obviously inflated of $1.058^{+0.110}_{-0.062} \ R_\mathrm{J}$, also orbiting an evolved intermediate-mass star (1.31 M⊙ and 3.55 R⊙; TIC 204650483) on a period of 9.956 d. We place both planets in context of known systems with hot Jupiters orbiting evolved hosts, and note that both planets follow the observed trend of the known stellar incident flux-planetary radius relation observed for these short-period giants. Additionally, we produce planetary interior models to estimate the heating efficiency with which stellar incident flux is deposited in the planet’s interior, estimating values of $1.91 \pm 0.48~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ and $2.19 \pm 0.45~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ for TOI-4377 b and TOI-4551 b, respectively. These values are in line with the known population of hot Jupiters, including hot Jupiters orbiting main-sequence hosts, which suggests that the radii of our planets have re-inflated in step with their parent star’s brightening as they evolved into the post-main sequence. Finally, we evaluate the potential to observe orbital decay in both systems.

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  3. Abstract

    While secondary mass inferences based on single-lined spectroscopic binary (SB1) solutions are subject tosinidegeneracies, this degeneracy can be lifted through the observations of eclipses. We combine the subset of Gaia Data Release 3 SB1 solutions consistent with brown dwarf-mass secondaries with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Object of Interest (TOI) list to identify three candidate transiting brown dwarf systems. Ground-based precision radial velocity follow-up observations confirm that TOI-2533.01 is a transiting brown dwarf withM=723+3MJup=0.0690.003+0.003Morbiting TYC 2010-124-1 and that TOI-5427.01 is a transiting very low-mass star withM=932+2MJup=0.0880.002+0.002Morbiting UCAC4 515-012898. We validate TOI-1712.01 as a very low-mass star withM=827+7MJup=0.0790.007+0.007Mtransiting the primary in the hierarchical triple system BD+45 1593. Even after accounting for third light, TOI-1712.01 has a radius nearly a factor of 2 larger than predicted for isolated stars with similar properties. We propose that the intense instellation experienced by TOI-1712.01 diminishes the temperature gradient near its surface, suppresses convection, and leads to its inflated radius. Our analyses verify Gaia DR3 SB1 solutions in the low Doppler semiamplitude limit, thereby providing the foundation for future joint analyses of Gaia radial velocities and Kepler, K2, TESS, and PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations light curves for the characterization of transiting massive brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars.

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    We present the confirmation of a hot super-Neptune with an exterior Neptune companion orbiting a bright (V  = 10.1 mag) F-dwarf identified by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The two planets, observed in sectors 45, 46, and 48 of the TESS extended mission, are $4.74_{-0.14}^{+0.16}$ and $3.86_{-0.16}^{+0.17}$ R⊕ with $5.4588385_{-0.0000072}^{+0.0000070}$ and $17.8999_{-0.0013}^{+0.0018}$ d orbital periods, respectively. We also obtained precise space-based photometric follow-up of the system with ESA’s CHaracterising ExOplanets Satellite to constrain the radius and ephemeris of TOI-5126 b. TOI-5126 b is located in the ‘hot Neptune Desert’ and is an ideal candidate for follow-up transmission spectroscopy due to its high-predicted equilibrium temperature (Teq = ${1442}_{-40}^{+46}$ K) implying a cloud-free atmosphere. TOI-5126 c is a warm Neptune (Teq = $971_{-27}^{+31}$ K) also suitable for follow-up. Tentative transit timing variations have also been identified in analysis, suggesting the presence of at least one additional planet, however this signal may be caused by spot-crossing events, necessitating further precise photometric follow-up to confirm these signals.

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  5. Abstract We present the detection of neutral helium at 10833 Å in the atmosphere of WASP-52b and tentative evidence of helium in the atmosphere of the grazing WASP-177b, using high-resolution observations acquired with the NIRSPEC instrument on the Keck II telescope. We detect excess absorption by helium in WASP-52b’s atmosphere of 3.44% ± 0.31% (11 σ ), or equivalently 66 ± 5 atmospheric scale heights. This absorption is centered on the planet’s rest frame (Δ v = 0.00 ± 1.19 km s −1 ). We model the planet’s escape using a 1D Parker wind model and calculate its mass-loss rate to be ∼1.4 × 10 11 g s −1 , or equivalently 0.5% of its mass per gigayear. For WASP-177b, we see evidence for redshifted (Δ v = 6.02 ± 1.88 km s −1 ) helium-like absorption of 1.28% ± 0.29% (equal to 23 ± 5 atmospheric scale heights). However, due to residual systematics in the transmission spectrum of similar amplitude, we do not interpret this as significant evidence for He absorption in the planet’s atmosphere. Using a 1D Parker wind model, we set a 3 σ upper limit on WASP-177b’s escape rate of 7.9 × 10 10 g s −1 . Our results, taken together with recent literature detections, suggest the tentative relation between XUV irradiation and He i absorption amplitude may be shallower than previously suggested. Our results highlight how metastable helium can advance our understanding of atmospheric loss and its role in shaping the exoplanet population. 
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    We report on the discovery and characterization of three planets orbiting the F8 star HD 28109, which sits comfortably in ${TESS}$’s continuous viewing zone. The two outer planets have periods of $\rm 56.0067 \pm 0.0003~d$ and $\rm 84.2597_{-0.0008}^{+0.0010}~d$, which implies a period ratio very close to that of the first-order 3:2 mean motion resonance, exciting transit timing variations (TTVs) of up to $\rm 60\, min$. These two planets were first identified by ${TESS}$, and we identified a third planet in the ${TESS}$photometry with a period of $\rm 22.8911 \pm 0.0004~d$. We confirm the planetary nature of all three planetary candidates using ground-based photometry from Hazelwood, ${ASTEP}$, and LCO, including a full detection of the $\rm \sim 9\, h$ transit of HD 28109 c from Antarctica. The radii of the three planets are ${\it R}_b=2.199_{-0.10}^{+0.098} ~{\rm R}_{\oplus }$, ${\it R}_c=4.23\pm 0.11~ {\rm R}_{\oplus }$, and ${\it R}_d=3.25\pm 0.11 ~{\rm R}_{\oplus }$; we characterize their masses using TTVs and precise radial velocities from ESPRESSO and HARPS, and find them to be ${\it M}_b=18.5_{-7.6}^{+9.1}~M_{\oplus }$, ${\it M}_c=7.9_{-3.0}^{+4.2}~{\rm M}_{\oplus }$, and ${\it M}_d=5.7_{-2.1}^{+2.7}~{\rm M}_{\oplus }$, making planet b a dense, massive planet while c and d are both underdense. We also demonstrate that the two outer planets are ripe for atmospheric characterization using transmission spectroscopy, especially given their position in the CVZ of James Webb Space Telescope. The data obtained to date are consistent with resonant (librating) and non-resonant (circulating) solutions; additional observations will show whether the pair is actually locked in resonance or just near-resonant.

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  7. Abstract

    We report the discovery and characterization of a nearby (∼85 pc), older (27 ± 3 Myr), distributed stellar population near Lower Centaurus Crux (LCC), initially identified by searching for stars comoving with a candidate transiting planet from TESS (HD 109833; TOI 1097). We determine the association membership using Gaia kinematics, color–magnitude information, and rotation periods of candidate members. We measure its age using isochrones, gyrochronology, and Li depletion. While the association is near known populations of LCC, we find that it is older than any previously found LCC subgroup (10–16 Myr), and distinct in both position and velocity. In addition to the candidate planets around HD 109833, the association contains four directly imaged planetary-mass companions around three stars, YSES-1, YSES-2, and HD 95086, all of which were previously assigned membership in the younger LCC. Using the Notch pipeline, we identify a second candidate transiting planet around HD 109833. We use a suite of ground-based follow-up observations to validate the two transit signals as planetary in nature. HD 109833 b and c join the small but growing population of <100 Myr transiting planets from TESS. HD 109833 has a rotation period and Li abundance indicative of a young age (≲100 Myr), but a position and velocity on the outskirts of the new population, lower Li levels than similar members, and a color–magnitude diagram position below model predictions for 27 Myr. So, we cannot reject the possibility that HD 109833 is a young field star coincidentally nearby the population.

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  8. Abstract

    The alignment of planetary orbits with respect to the stellar rotation preserves information on their dynamical histories. Measuring this angle for young planets helps illuminate the mechanisms that create misaligned orbits for older planets, as different processes could operate over timescales ranging from a few megayears to a gigayear. We present spectroscopic transit observations of the young exoplanet V1298 Tau b; we update the age of V1298 Tau to be 28 ± 4 Myr based on Gaia EDR3 measurements. We observed a partial transit with Keck/HIRES and LBT/PEPSI, and detected the radial velocity anomaly due to the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect. V1298 Tau b has a prograde, well-aligned orbit, withλ=410+7deg. By combining the spectroscopically measuredvsiniand the photometrically measured rotation period of the host star we also find that the orbit is aligned in 3D,ψ=87+4deg. Finally, we combine our obliquity constraints with a previous measurement for the interior planet V1298 Tau c to constrain the mutual inclination between the two planets to beimut= 0° ± 19°. This measurements adds to the growing number of well-aligned planets at young ages, hinting that misalignments may be generated over timescales of longer than tens of megayears. The number of measurements, however, is still small, and this population may not be representative of the older planets that have been observed to date. We also present the derivation of the relationship betweenimut,λ, andifor the two planets.

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  9. ABSTRACT We present the discovery and characterization of six short-period, transiting giant planets from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) -- TOI-1811 (TIC 376524552), TOI-2025 (TIC 394050135), TOI-2145 (TIC 88992642), TOI-2152 (TIC 395393265), TOI-2154 (TIC 428787891), and TOI-2497 (TIC 97568467). All six planets orbit bright host stars (8.9 <G < 11.8, 7.7 <K < 10.1). Using a combination of time-series photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations from the TESS Follow-up Observing Program Working Group, we have determined that the planets are Jovian-sized (RP  = 0.99--1.45 RJ), have masses ranging from 0.92 to 5.26 MJ, and orbit F, G, and K stars (4766 ≤ Teff ≤ 7360 K). We detect a significant orbital eccentricity for the three longest-period systems in our sample: TOI-2025 b (P  = 8.872 d, 0.394$^{+0.035}_{-0.038}$), TOI-2145 b (P  = 10.261 d, e  = $0.208^{+0.034}_{-0.047}$), and TOI-2497 b (P  = 10.656 d, e  = $0.195^{+0.043}_{-0.040}$). TOI-2145 b and TOI-2497 b both orbit subgiant host stars (3.8 < log  g <4.0), but these planets show no sign of inflation despite very high levels of irradiation. The lack of inflation may be explained by the high mass of the planets; $5.26^{+0.38}_{-0.37}$ MJ (TOI-2145 b) and 4.82 ± 0.41 MJ (TOI-2497 b). These six new discoveries contribute to the larger community effort to use TESS to create a magnitude-complete, self-consistent sample of giant planets with well-determined parameters for future detailed studies. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 14, 2024