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Creators/Authors contains: "Zhou, Yan"

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  1. Abstract

    The efficiency of solar radiation interception contributes to the photosynthetic efficiency of crop plants. Light interception is a function of canopy architecture, including plant density; leaf number, length, width, and angle; and azimuthal canopy orientation. We report on the ability of some maize (Zea mays) genotypes to alter the orientations of their leaves during development in coordination with adjacent plants. Although the upper canopies of these genotypes retain the typical alternate-distichous phyllotaxy of maize, their leaves grow parallel to those of adjacent plants. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) on this parallel canopy trait identified candidate genes, many of which are associated with shade avoidance syndrome, including phytochromeC2. GWAS conducted on the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by canopies also identified multiple candidate genes, including liguleless1 (lg1), previously defined by its role in ligule development. Under high plant densities, mutants of shade avoidance syndrome and liguleless genes (lg1, lg2, and Lg3) exhibit altered canopy patterns, viz, the numbers of interrow leaves are greatly reduced as compared to those of nonmutant controls, resulting in dramatically decreased PAR interception. In at least the case of lg2, this phenotype is not a consequence of abnormal ligule development. Instead, liguleless gene functions are required for normal light responses, including azimuth canopy re-orientation.

     
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  2. A library of soft, stretchable, strain-insensitive bioelectronics was made using brittle interfacial materials. 
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  3. Disorders of cartilage homeostasis and chondrocyte apoptosis are major events in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Herein, we sought to assess the chondroprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of a novel chemically modified curcumin, CMC2.24, in modulating extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis and inhibiting chondrocyte apoptosis. Rats underwent the anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial menisci resection were treated by intra-articular injection with CMC2.24. In vitro study, rat chondrocytes were pretreated with CMC2.24 before stimulation with sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The effects of CMC2.24 on cartilage homeostasis and chondrocyte apoptosis were observed. The results from in vivo studies demonstrated that the intra-articular administration of CMC2.24 delayed cartilage degeneration and suppressed chondrocyte apoptosis. CMC2.24 ameliorated osteoarthritic cartilage destruction by promoting collagen 2a1 production and inhibited cartilage degradation and apoptosis by suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor-2a (Hif-2α), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), cleaved caspase-3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65. The in vitro results revealed that CMC2.24 exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on SNP-induced chondrocyte catabolism and apoptosis. The SNP-enhanced expression of Hif-2α, catabolic and apoptotic factor, decreased after CMC2.24 treatment in a dose-dependent manner. CMC2.24 pretreatment effectively inhibited SNP-induced IκBα and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in rat chondrocytes, whereas the pretreatment with NF-κB antagonist BMS-345541 significantly enhanced the effects of CMC2.24. Taken together, these results demonstrated that CMC2.24 attenuates OA progression by modulating ECM homeostasis and chondrocyte apoptosis via suppression of the NF-κB/Hif-2α axis, thus providing a new perspective for the therapeutic strategy of OA. 
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  4. In this Viewpoint, we propose an updated labeling scheme for describing quantum yield in TTA-UC so as to better facilitate communication and comparisons across applications, materials, and intervening events and to introduce more consistency in the scientific literature. 
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