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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Abstract Additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials often comprise as-printed dislocation cells inside grains. These dislocation cells can give rise to substantial microscale internal stresses in both initial undeformed and plastically deformed samples, thereby affecting the mechanical properties of AM metallic materials. Here we develop models of microscale internal stresses in AM stainless steel by focusing on their back stress components. Three sources of microscale back stresses are considered, including the printing and deformation-induced back stresses associated with as-printed dislocation cells as well as the deformation-induced back stresses associated with grain boundaries. We use a three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics model to demonstrate the manifestation of printing-induced back stresses. We adopt a dislocation pile-up model to evaluate the deformation-induced back stresses associated with as-printed dislocation cells. The extracted back stress relation from the pile-up model is incorporated into a crystal plasticity model that accounts for the other two sources of back stresses as well. The crystal plasticity finite element simulation results agree with the experimentally measured tension-compression asymmetry and macroscopic back stress, the latter of which represents the effective resultant of microscale back stresses of different origins. Our results provide an in-depth understanding of the origins and evolution of microscale internal stressesmore »in AM metallic materials.« less
  3. Abstract

    Non-conservative dislocation climb plays a unique role in the plastic deformation and creep of crystalline materials. Nevertheless, the underlying atomic-scale mechanisms of dislocation climb have not been explored by direct experimental observations. Here, we report atomic-scale observations of grain boundary (GB) dislocation climb in nanostructured Au during in situ straining at room temperature. The climb of a edge dislocation is found to occur by stress-induced reconstruction of two neighboring atomic columns at the edge of an extra half atomic plane in the dislocation core. This is different from the conventional belief of dislocation climb by destruction or construction of a single atomic column at the dislocation core. The atomic route of the dislocation climb we proposed is demonstrated to be energetically favorable by Monte Carlo simulations. Our in situ observations also reveal GB evolution through dislocation climb at room temperature, which suggests a means of controlling microstructures and properties of nanostructured metals.

  4. Abstract

    Nanograined metals have the merit of high strength, but usually suffer from low work hardening capacity and poor thermal stability, causing premature failure and limiting their practical utilities. Here we report a “nanodispersion-in-nanograins” strategy to simultaneously strengthen and stabilize nanocrystalline metals such as copper and nickel. Our strategy relies on a uniform dispersion of extremely fine sized carbon nanoparticles (2.6 ± 1.2 nm) inside nanograins. The intragranular dispersion of nanoparticles not only elevates the strength of already-strong nanograins by 35%, but also activates multiple hardening mechanisms via dislocation-nanoparticle interactions, leading to improved work hardening and large tensile ductility. In addition, these finely dispersed nanoparticles result in substantially enhanced thermal stability and electrical conductivity in metal nanocomposites. Our results demonstrate the concurrent improvement of several mutually exclusive properties in metals including strength-ductility, strength-thermal stability, and strength-electrical conductivity, and thus represent a promising route to engineering high-performance nanostructured materials.