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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. Entanglement is a quintessential quantum mechanical phenomenon with no classical equivalent. First discussed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen and formally introduced by Schrödinger in 1935, entanglement has grown from a scientific debate to a radically new resource that sparks a technological revolution. This review focuses on fundamentals and recent advances in entanglement-based quantum information technology (QIT), specifically in photonic systems. Photons are unique quantum information carriers with several advantages, such as their ability to operate at room temperature, their compatibility with existing communication and sensing infrastructures, and the availability of readily accessible optical components. Photons also interface well with other solid-state quantum platforms. We first provide an overview on entanglement, starting with an introduction to its development from a historical perspective followed by the theory for entanglement generation and the associated representative experiments. We then dive into the applications of entanglement-based QIT for sensing, imaging, spectroscopy, data processing, and communication. Before closing, we present an outlook for the architecture of the next-generation entanglement-based QIT and its prospective applications.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  3. Bosonic encoding of quantum information into harmonic oscillators is a hardware efficient approach to battle noise. In this regard, oscillator-to-oscillator codes not only provide an additional opportunity in bosonic encoding, but also extend the applicability of error correction to continuous-variable states ubiquitous in quantum sensing and communication. In this work, we derive the optimal oscillator-to-oscillator codes among the general family of Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP)-stablizer codes for homogeneous noise. We prove that an arbitrary GKP-stabilizer code can be reduced to a generalized GKP two-mode-squeezing (TMS) code. The optimal encoding to minimize the geometric mean error can be constructed from GKP-TMS codes with an optimized GKP lattice and TMS gains. For single-mode data and ancilla, this optimal code design problem can be efficiently solved, and we further provide numerical evidence that a hexagonal GKP lattice is optimal and strictly better than the previously adopted square lattice. For the multimode case, general GKP lattice optimization is challenging. In the two-mode data and ancilla case, we identify the D4 lattice—a 4-dimensional dense-packing lattice—to be superior to a product of lower dimensional lattices. As a by-product, the code reduction allows us to prove a universal no-threshold-theorem for arbitrary oscillators-to-oscillators codes based on Gaussian encoding, even when the ancilla are not GKP states.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 16, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Dual-comb interferometry harnesses the interference of two laser frequency combs to provide unprecedented capability in spectroscopy applications. In the past decade, the state-of-the-art systems have reached a point where the signal-to-noise ratio per unit acquisition time is fundamentally limited by shot noise from vacuum fluctuations. To address the issue, we propose an entanglement-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy protocol that leverages quantum resources to significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio performance. To analyze the performance of real systems, we develop a quantum model of dual-comb spectroscopy that takes practical noises into consideration. Based on this model, we propose quantum combs with side-band entanglement around each comb lines to suppress the shot noise in heterodyne detection. Our results show significant quantum advantages in the uW to mW power range, making this technique particularly attractive for biological and chemical sensing applications. Furthermore, the quantum comb can be engineered using nonlinear optics and promises near-term experimentation.

     
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  8. Abstract

    Entanglement has been known to boost target detection, despite it being destroyed by lossy-noisy propagation. Recently, Zhuang and Shapiro (2022Phys. Rev. Lett.128010501) proposed a quantum pulse-compression radar to extend entanglement’s benefit to target range estimation. In a radar application, many other aspects of the target are of interest, including angle, velocity and cross section. In this study, we propose a dual-receiver radar scheme that employs a high time-bandwidth product microwave pulse entangled with a pre-shared reference signal available at the receiver, to investigate the direction of a distant object and show that the direction-resolving capability is significantly improved by entanglement, compared to its classical counterpart under the same parameter settings. We identify the applicable scenario of this quantum radar to be short-range and high-frequency, which enables entanglement’s benefit in a reasonable integration time.

     
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