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  1. Abstract

    Long emission wavelengths, high fluorescence quantum yields (FQYs), and large Stokes shifts are highly desirable features for fluorescent probes in biological imaging. However, the current development of many fluorescent probes remains largely trial‐and‐error and lacks efficiency. Moreover, to achieve far‐red/near‐infrared emission, a significant extension in the‐conjugation is usually adopted but accompanied by other drawbacks such as fluorescence loss. In this review, we discuss an effective red‐shifting strategy built upon the green fluorescent protein chromophore, which enables a synergistic tuning of both the electronic ground and excited states. This approach could shorten the path toward redder emission in comparison to the conventional intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) strategy. We envision that this spectroscopy and computation‐aided strategy may advance the noncanonical fluorescent protein design and be generalized to various fluorophore scaffolds for redder emission while preserving other superior properties such as high FQYs.

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  2. Abstract

    A non‐aqueous proton electrolyte is devised by dissolving H3PO4into acetonitrile. The electrolyte exhibits unique vibrational signatures from stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Such an electrolyte exhibits unique characteristics compared to aqueous acidic electrolytes: 1) higher (de)protonation potential for a lower desolvation energy of protons, 2) better cycling stability by dissolution suppression, and 3) higher Coulombic efficiency owing to the lack of oxygen evolution reaction. Two non‐aqueous proton full cells exhibit better cycling stability, higher Coulombic efficiency, and less self‐discharge compared to the aqueous counterpart.

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  5. The structure–function relationships of biomolecules have captured the interest and imagination of the scientific community and general public since the field of structural biology emerged to enable the molecular understanding of life processes. Proteins that play numerous functional roles in cellular processes have remained in the forefront of research, inspiring new characterization techniques. In this review, we present key theoretical concepts and recent experimental strategies using femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) to map the structural dynamics of proteins, highlighting the flexible chromophores on ultrafast timescales. In particular, wavelength-tunable FSRS exploits dynamic resonance conditions to track transient-species-dependent vibrational motions, enabling rational design to alter functions. Various ways of capturing excited-state chromophore structural snapshots in the time and/or frequency domains are discussed. Continuous development of experimental methodologies, synergistic correlation with theoretical modeling, and the expansion to other nonequilibrium, photoswitchable, and controllable protein systems will greatly advance the chemical, physical, and biological sciences. 
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