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  1. The transition from conventional to organic agriculture is often challenged by the adaptation of biological control agents to environments heavily exposed to agrochemical pollutants. We studied Trichoderma species isolated from living leaf tissues of wild Rubiacaeae (coffee family) plants to determine their fungicide tolerance and potential for bioremoval. First, we assessed the in vitro tolerance to fungicides of four Trichoderma isolates ( Trichoderma rifaii T1, T . aff. crassum T2, T . aff. atroviride T3, and T . aff. strigosellum T4) by placing mycelial plugs onto solid media supplemented with seven different systemic and non-systemic fungicides. After a week, most of the fungicides did not significantly inhibit the growth of the isolates, except in the case of cyproconazole, where the only isolate able to grow was T1; however, the colony morphology was affected by the presence of fungicides. Second, biological removal potential was established for selected isolates. For this experiment, the isolates T1, T2, and T4 were independently inoculated into liquid media with the fungicides azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, cyproconazole, and trifloxystrobin. After 14 days of incubation, a removal of up to 89% was achieved for chlorothalonil, 46.4% for cyproconazole, and 33.1% for trifloxystrobin using viable biomass. In the case of azoxystrobin,more »the highest removal (82.2%) occurred by adsorption to fungal biomass. Ecotoxicological tests in Daphnia magna revealed that T1 has the highest removal potential, achieving significant elimination of every fungicide, while simultaneously detoxifying the aqueous matrix (except in the case of cyproconazole). Isolate T4 also exhibited an intermediate efficiency, while isolate T2 was unable to detoxify the matrix in most cases. The removal and detoxification of cyproconazole failed with all the isolates. These findings suggest that endosphere of wild plants could be an attractive guild to find new Trichoderma species with promising bioremediation capabilities. In addition, the results demonstrate that attention should be placed when combining certain types of agrochemicals with antagonistic fungi in Integrated Pest and Disease Management strategies or when transitioning to organic agriculture.« less
  2. Los estudios ecológicos de las comunidades fúngicas se han visto favorecidos gracias a la aparición y mejora de técnicas independientes de cultivo que utilizan la región ITS como marcador molecular. Esto ha permitido una identificación más precisa en comparación con los métodos tradicionales dependientes de la cultura. Las técnicas de secuenciación de próxima generación han aumentado la cantidad de datos disponibles para la comprensión de las comunidades de hongos endofíticos. Una parte importante de este proceso es la inferencia filogenética para descifrar cómo se relacionan e interactúan los diferentes taxones, sin embargo, este puede convertirse en uno de los análisis bioinformáticos que exige más tiempo. En respuesta a esto, la bioinformática junto con la informática de alto rendimiento ofrecen soluciones para acelerar y hacer más eficientes las herramientas disponibles para el procesamiento de datos a través de la implementación de supercomputadoras y la paralelización de herramientas. En este estudio llevamos a cabo el procesamiento de secuencias ITS para luego utilizar la paralelización de Exabayes, software especializado en el análisis y creación de árboles filogenéticos. Gracias al uso de esta técnica, fue posible reducir el tiempo de ejecución de Exabayes de más de 400 horas a 6 horas, lo que demuestramore »los beneficios del uso de plataformas informáticas de alto rendimiento.« less