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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  2. While distributed computing infrastructures can provide infrastructure-level techniques for managing energy consumption, application-level energy consumption models have also been developed to support energy-efficient scheduling and resource provisioning algorithms. In this work, we analyze the accuracy of a widely-used application-level model that have been developed and used in the context of scientific workflow executions. To this end, we profile two production scientific workflows on a distributed platform instrumented with power meters. We then conduct an analysis of power and energy consumption measurements. This analysis shows that power consumption is not linearly related to CPU utilization and that I/O operations significantly impactmore »power, and thus energy, consumption. We then propose a power consumption model that accounts for I/O operations, including the impact of waiting for these operations to complete, and for concurrent task executions on multi-socket, multi-core compute nodes. We implement our proposed model as part of a simulator that allows us to draw direct comparisons between real-world and modeled power and energy consumption. We find that our model has high accuracy when compared to real-world executions. Furthermore, our model improves accuracy by about two orders of magnitude when compared to the traditional models used in the energy-efficient workflow scheduling literature.« less
  3. The CyberInfrastructure (CI) has been the object of intensive research and development in the last decade, resulting in a rich set of abstractions and interoperable software implementations that are used in production today for supporting ongoing and breakthrough scientific discoveries. A key challenge is the development of tools and application execution frameworks that are robust in current and emerging CI configurations, and that can anticipate the needs of upcoming CI applications. This paper presents WRENCH, a framework that enables simulation-driven engineering for evaluating and developing CI application execution frameworks. WRENCH provides a set of high-level simulation abstractions that serve asmore »building blocks for developing custom simulators. These abstractions rely on the scalable and accurate simulation models that are provided by the SimGrid simulation framework. Consequently, WRENCH makes it possible to build, with minimum software development effort, simulators that that can accurately and scalably simulate a wide spectrum of large and complex CI scenarios. These simulators can then be used to evaluate and/or compare alternate platform, system, and algorithm designs, so as to drive the development of CI solutions for current and emerging applications.« less
  4. It is typical in High Performance Computing (HPC) courses to give students access to HPC platforms so that they can benefit from hands-on learning opportunities. Using such platforms, however, comes with logistical and pedagogical challenges. For instance, a logistical challenge is that access to representative platforms must be granted to students, which can be difficult for some institutions or course modalities; and a pedagogical challenge is that hands-on learning opportunities are constrained by the configurations of these platforms. A way to address these challenges is to instead simulate program executions on arbitrary HPC platform configurations. In this work we focusmore »on simulation in the specific context of distributed-memory computing and MPI programming education. While using simulation in this context has been explored in previous works, our approach offers two crucial advantages. First, students write standard MPI programs and can both debug and analyze the performance of their programs in simulation mode. Second, large-scale executions can be simulated in short amounts of time on a single standard laptop computer. This is possible thanks to SMPI, an MPI simulator provided as part of SimGrid. After detailing the challenges involved when using HPC platforms for HPC education and providing background information about SMPI, we present SMPI Courseware. SMPI Courseware is a set of in-simulation assignments that can be incorporated into HPC courses to provide students with hands-on experience for distributed-memory computing and MPI programming learning objectives. We describe some these assignments, highlighting how simulation with SMPI enhances the student learning experience.« less
  5. Scientific workflows are used routinely in numerous scientific domains, and Workflow Management Systems (WMSs) have been developed to orchestrate and optimize workflow executions on distributed platforms. WMSs are complex software systems that interact with complex software infrastructures. Most WMS research and development activities rely on empirical experiments conducted with full-fledged software stacks on actual hardware platforms. Such experiments, however, are limited to hardware and software infrastructures at hand and can be labor- and/or time-intensive. As a result, relying solely on real-world experiments impedes WMS research and development. An alternative is to conduct experiments in simulation. In this work we presentmore »WRENCH, a WMS simulation framework, whose objectives are (i)~accurate and scalable simulations; and (ii)~easy simulation software development. WRENCH achieves its first objective by building on the SimGrid framework. While SimGrid is recognized for the accuracy and scalability of its simulation models, it only provides low-level simulation abstractions and thus large software development efforts are required when implementing simulators of complex systems. WRENCH thus achieves its second objective by providing high-level and directly re-usable simulation abstractions on top of SimGrid. After describing and giving rationales for WRENCH's software architecture and APIs, we present a case study in which we apply WRENCH to simulate the Pegasus production WMS. We report on ease of implementation, simulation accuracy, and simulation scalability so as to determine to which extent WRENCH achieves its two above objectives. We also draw both qualitative and quantitative comparisons with a previously proposed workflow simulator.« less
  6. We consider the problem of orchestrating the execution of workflow applications structured as Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) on parallel computing platforms that are subject to fail-stop failures. The objective is to minimize expected overall execution time, or makespan. A solution to this problem consists of a schedule of the workflow tasks on the available processors and of a decision of which application data to checkpoint to stable storage, so as to mitigate the impact of processor failures. For general DAGs this problem is hopelessly intractable. In fact, given a solution, computing its expected makespan is still a difficult problem. Tomore »address this challenge, we consider a restricted class of graphs, Minimal Series-Parallel Graphs (M-SPGS). It turns out that many real-world workflow applications are naturally structured as M-SPGS. For this class of graphs, we propose a recursive list-scheduling algorithm that exploits the M-SPG structure to assign sub-graphs to individual processors, and uses dynamic programming to decide which tasks in these sub-gaphs should be checkpointed. Furthermore, it is possible to efficiently compute the expected makespan for the solution produced by this algorithm, using a first-order approximation of task weights and existing evaluation algorithms for 2-state probabilistic DAGs. We assess the performance of our algorithm for production workflow configurations, comparing it to (i) an approach in which all application data is checkpointed, which corresponds to the standard way in which most production workflows are executed today; and (ii) an approach in which no application data is checkpointed. Our results demonstrate that our algorithm strikes a good compromise between these two approaches, leading to lower checkpointing overhead than the former and to better resilience to failure than the latter.« less