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  1. In this study, a power converter topology and control schemes for the power converter stages are proposed for a DC extreme fast charger. The proposed system is composed of a cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converter as the active front end (AFE), and an input series output parallel (ISOP), which includes three parallel connected dual active bridge (DAB) cells. A modified Lyapunov Function (LF) based control strategy is applied to obtain high current control response for the AFE. An additional controller to remove the voltage unbalances among the H-bridges is also presented. Additionally, the triple phase-shift (TPS) control method is applied for the ISOP DAB converter. A Lagrange Multiplier (LM) based optimization study is performed to minimize the RMS current of the transformer. The performance of the proposed converter topology and control strategies is validated with MATLAB/Simulink simulations.
  2. The Modular Multi-Level Converter (MMC) is a popular topology for HVDC or MVDC microgrids which require 6 (2 per phase) arm inductors for each system which are significant in size. Therefore characterizing different magnetic materials for a MV inductor design process is very important for power density. Many variables must be analyzed before expensive MV inductors are manufactured. Inductor design is a multi-objective optimization problem that is tackled by using an evolutionary algorithm to solve this is shown in this paper. Loss, Mass, and volume are optimized using a genetic algorithm for a 2mH, 297 A(rms) MMC arm inductor with an E-I core structure.
  3. This article identifies and validates the use of ultrafast silicon carbide (SiC) junction field effect transistor (JFET)-based self-powered solid-state circuit breakers (SSCBs) as the enabling protective device for a 340 Vdc residential dc community microgrid. These SSCBs will be incorporated into a radial distribution system in order to enhance fault discrimination through autonomous operation. Because of the nature and characteristics of short-circuit fault inception in dc microgrids, the time-current trip characteristics of protective devices must be several orders of magnitude faster than conventional circuit breakers. The proposed SSCBs detect short-circuit faults by sensing the sudden voltage rise between its two power terminals and draw power from the fault condition itself to turn off SiC JFETs and then, coordinate with no-load contacts that can isolate the fault. Depending upon the location of the SSCBs in the microgrid, either unidirectional or bidirectional implementations are incorporated. Cascaded SSCBs are tuned using a simple resistor change to enable fault discrimination between upstream high-current feeds and downstream lower current branches. Operation of one of the SSCBs and three in cascaded arrangements are validated both in simulation and with a hardware test platform. Thermal impact on the SSCB is discussed as well. The target application ismore »a residential dc microgrid that will be installed as part of a revitalization effort of an inner city Milwaukee neighborhood.« less
  4. Larger penetration of Distributed Generations (DG) in the power system brings new flexibility and opportunity as well as new challenges due to the generally intermittent nature of DG. When these DG are installed in the medium voltage distribution systems as components of the smart grid, further support is required to ensure a smooth and controllable operation. To complement the uncontrollable output power of these resources, energy storage devices need to be incorporated to absorb excessive power and provide power shortage in time of need. They also can provide reactive power to dynamically help the voltage profile. Energy Storage Systems (ESS) can be expensive and limited number of them can practically be installed in distribution systems. In addition to frequency regulation and energy time shifting, ESS can support voltage and angle stability in the power network. This paper applies a Jacobian matrix-based sensitivity analysis to determine the most appropriate node in a grid to collectively improve the voltage magnitude and angle of all the nodes by active/reactive power injection. IEEE 14, 24, and 123-bus distribution system are selected to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. As opposed to most previous studies, this method does not require an iteration loop withmore »a convergence problem nor a network-related complicated objective function.« less
  5. In this study, design of a 330kW single-phase transformer (corresponding to 1MW three-phase) operating at 50kHz is presented. Possible core materials and their performances are investigated under high switching frequency operation. Core volume, area, configuration, and market availability are studied to achieve the optimal compact and cost-effective transformer model. Next, transformer winding type, size, placement, and cost are analyzed. These steps will result in a complete transformer electromagnetic design and modelling. Afterwards, a 3D transformer model is created and simulated using a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool. ANSYS Maxwell-3D is used to simulate the magnetics, electrostatics, and transients of the designed transformer. This model is integrated with a power electronics circuit in ANSYS Simplorer to make a co-simulation for the entire system. Results obtained will include core maximum flux density, core/copper losses, leakage/magnetizing inductances, windings parasitic capacitances, and input/output voltage, current, and power values. Finally, the systems' overall efficiency is calculated and presented.
  6. In this paper, design of a compact high frequency four-port transformer for a Solid-State Transformer (SST) arrangement is presented. Unlike other SSTs, the four-port system integrates three active sources and a load port with galvanic isolation via a single transformer core. In addition to this feature, one of the three source ports is designed to operate at Medium Voltage (MV) 7.2kV for direct connection to 4.16kV AC grid, while other ports nominal voltages are rated at 400V. The transformer is designed to operate at 50kHz and to supply 25kW/port. Thus, the proposed system connects the MV grid, Energy Storage System (ESS), PV, and DC load to each other on a single common transformer core. Based on the system power demand and availability of renewable energy resources, utility and energy storage ports can either supply or draw power, while PV port can only supply power, maintaining the required demand for the load. This work focuses mainly on the High Frequency Transformer (HFT) design. An extensive study is carried out to obtain the optimal, compact, cost effective, and high efficiency model. Modeling, mathematical, and simulation results are derived and presented to demonstrate the viability of this design.