The mechanoreceptive lateral line system in fish is composed of neuromasts containing hair cells, which can be temporarily ablated by aminoglycoside antibiotics and heavy metal ions. These chemicals have been used for some time in studies exploring the functional role of the lateral line system in many fish species. However, little information on the relative effectiveness and rate of action of these chemicals for ablation is available. In particular, aminoglycoside antibiotics are thought to affect canal neuromasts, which sit in bony or trunk canals, differently from superficial neuromasts, which sit directly on the skin. This assumed ablation pattern has not been fully quantified for commonly used lateral line ablation agents. This study provides a detailed characterization of the effects of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, streptomycin sulfate and neomycin sulfate, and a heavy metal salt, cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate (CoCl2), on the ablation of hair cells in canal and superficial neuromasts in the giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) lateral line system, as a model for adult teleost fishes. We also quantified the regeneration of hair cells after ablation using CoCl2 and gentamycin sulfate to verify the time course to full recovery, and whether the ablation method affects the recovery time. Using amore »
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Comparison of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics and Cobalt Chloride for Ablation of the Lateral Line System in Giant Danios
Locomotion is an essential behaviour for the survival of all animals. The neural circuitry underlying locomotion is therefore highly robust to a wide variety of perturbations, including injury and abrupt changes in the environment. In the short term, fault tolerance in neural networks allows locomotion to persist immediately after mild to moderate injury. In the longer term, in many invertebrates and vertebrates, neural reorganization including anatomical regeneration can restore locomotion after severe perturbations that initially caused paralysis. Despite decades of research, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying locomotor resilience at the level of the underlying neural circuits and coordination of central pattern generators (CPGs). Undulatory locomotion is an ideal behaviour for exploring principles of circuit organization, neural control and resilience of locomotion, offering a number of unique advantages including experimental accessibility and modelling tractability. In comparing three well-characterized undulatory swimmers, lampreys, larval zebrafish and Caenorhabditis elegans, we find similarities in the manifestation of locomotor resilience. To advance our understanding, we propose a comparative approach, integrating experimental and modelling studies, that will allow the field to begin identifying shared and distinct solutions for overcoming perturbations to persist in orchestrating this essential behaviour.
null (Ed.)Abstract One key evolutionary innovation that separates vertebrates from invertebrates is the notochord, a central element that provides the stiffness needed for powerful movements. Later, the notochord was further stiffened by the vertebrae, cartilaginous and bony elements, surrounding the notochord. The ancestral notochord is retained in modern vertebrates as intervertebral material, but we know little about its mechanical interactions with surrounding vertebrae. In this study, the internal shape of the vertebrae—where this material is found—was quantified in sixteen species of fishes with various body shapes, swimming modes, and habitats. We used micro-computed tomography to measure the internal shape. We then created and mechanically tested physical models of intervertebral joints. We also mechanically tested actual vertebrae of five species. Material testing shows that internal morphology of the centrum significantly affects bending and torsional stiffness. Finally, we performed swimming trials to gather kinematic data. Combining these data, we created a model that uses internal vertebral morphology to make predictions about swimming kinematics and mechanics. We used linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to assess the relationship between vertebral shape and our categorical traits. The analysis revealed that internal vertebral morphology is sufficient to predict habitat, body shape, and swimming mode in our fishes. Thismore »
Tail beat synchronization during schooling requires a functional lateral line system in giant danios, Devario aequipinnatusAbstract Swimming in schools has long been hypothesized to allow fish to save energy. Fish must exploit the energy from the wakes of their neighbors for maximum energy savings, a feat that requires them to both synchronize their tail movements and stay in certain positions relative to their neighbors. To maintain position in a school, we know that fish use multiple sensory systems, mainly their visual and flow sensing lateral line system. However, how fish synchronize their swimming movements in a school is still not well understood. Here we test the hypothesis that this synchronization may depend on functional differences in the two branches of the lateral line sensory system that detects water movements close to the fish’s body. The anterior branch, located on the head, encounters largely undisturbed free-stream flow, while the posterior branch, located on the trunk and tail, encounters flow that has been affected strongly by the tail movement. Thus, we hypothesize that the anterior branch may be more important for regulating position within the school, while the posterior branch may be more important for synchronizing tail movements. Our study examines functional differences in the anterior and posterior lateral line in the structure and tail synchronization ofmore »
The anterior body of many fishes is shaped like an airfoil turned on its side. With an oscillating angle to the swimming direction, such an airfoil experiences negative pressure due to both its shape and pitching movements. This negative pressure acts as thrust forces on the anterior body. Here, we apply a high-resolution, pressure-based approach to describe how two fishes, bluegill sunfish (
Lepomis macrochirusRafinesque) and brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalisMitchill), swimming in the carangiform mode, the most common fish swimming mode, generate thrust on their anterior bodies using leading-edge suction mechanics, much like an airfoil. These mechanics contrast with those previously reported in lampreys—anguilliform swimmers—which produce thrust with negative pressure but do so through undulatory mechanics. The thrust produced on the anterior bodies of these carangiform swimmers through negative pressure comprises 28% of the total thrust produced over the body and caudal fin, substantially decreasing the net drag on the anterior body. On the posterior region, subtle differences in body shape and kinematics allow trout to produce more thrust than bluegill, suggesting that they may swim more effectively. Despite the large phylogenetic distance between these species, and differences near the tail, the pressure profiles around the anterior body are similar. Wemore »