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  1. Abstract

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria have roles in cell-to-cell signaling, biofilm formation, and stress responses. Here, the effects of abiotic stressors on OMV contents and composition from biofilm cells of the plant health-promoting bacteriumPseudomonas chlororaphisO6 (PcO6) are examined. Two stressors relevant to this root-colonizing bacterium were examined: CuO nanoparticles (NPs)-a potential fertilizer and fungicide- and H2O2-released from roots during plant stress responses. Atomic force microscopy revealed 40–300 nm diameter OMVs from control and stressed biofilm cells. Raman spectroscopy with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to identify changes in chemical profiles ofPcO6 cells and resultant OMVs according to the cellular stressor with 84.7% and 83.3% accuracies, respectively. All OMVs had higher relative concentrations of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids thanPcO6 cells. The nucleic acid concentration in OMVs exhibited a cellular stressor-dependent increase: CuO NP-induced OMVs > H2O2-induced OMVs > control OMVs. Biochemical assays confirmed the presence of lipopolysaccharides, nucleic acids, and protein in OMVs; however, these assays did not discriminate OMV composition according to the cellular stressor. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy using LDA to characterize and distinguish cellular stress effects on OMVs composition and contents.

  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  3. Strategies to reduce crop losses due to drought are needed as climate variability affects agricultural productivity. Wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Juniper) growth in a nutrient-sufficient, solid growth matrix containing varied doses of CuO, ZnO, and SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was used to evaluate NP mitigation of drought stress. NP amendments were at fertilizer levels, with maxima of 30 Cu, 20 Zn, and 200 Si (mg metal/kg matrix). Seeds of this drought-tolerant cultivar were inoculated with Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6) to provide a protective root microbiome. An 8 day drought imposed on 14 day-old wheat seedlings decreased shoot and root mass, shoot water content, and the quantum yield of photosystem II when compared to watered plants. PcO6 root colonization was not impaired by drought or NPs. A dose-dependent increase in the Cu, Zn, and Si from the NPs was observed from analysis of the rhizosphere solution, and this process was not affected by drought. Consequently, fertilizer concentrations of the NPs did not further improve drought tolerance in wheat seedlings under the growth conditions of adequate mineral nutrition and the presence of a beneficial microbiome. These findings suggest that potential NP benefits in promoting plant drought tolerance occur only under certain environmental conditions.
  4. Nanofertilizer application is becoming a sustainable alternative for plants micronutrients supply. Seed nutrient priming before seeding reduces non- target dispersion; although, applying nanofertilizer in correct concentration must be narrowly chosen to prevent germination and development issues. Here, we evaluated corn seedlings development and germination after seed priming with Mn3O4 nanoparticle (NP), Mn3O4 bulk and MnCl2. Sterile seeds were soaked for 8hours in priming solutions of 0, 20, 40, 80 and 160mg L1 for each Mn sources. The seeds vigor and germination were evaluated after 7 days on germination paper. Root, shoot and total lengths were measured as well as root, shoot and total dry biomass. Compared to the control, the Mn3O4 NP and Mn3O4 bulk promoted beneficial effects. Mn3O4 NP seed-priming exhibited a concentration dependent profile in improving seedling growth, with greatest benefit around 20mg L1, pro- viding higher germination, vigor, dry biomass and length than control and the other source tested. Particle size plays an important role in the reactiv- ity of Mn3O4 NP. On the other hand, seeds primed with soluble source did not differ from the control. These findings support NP-seed priming as an alternative to delivery micronutrients.
  5. Coatings offer a means to control nanoparticle (NP) size, regulate dissolution, and mitigate runoff when added to crops through soil. Simultaneously, coatings can enhance particle binding to plants and provide an additional source of nutrients, making them a valuable component to existing nanoparticle delivery systems. Here, the surface functionalization of metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles to inhibit aggregation and preserve smaller agglomerate sizes for enhanced transport to the rooting zone and improved uptake in plants is reviewed. Coatings are classified by type and by their efficacy to mitigate agglomeration in soils with variable pH, ionic concentration, and natural organic matter profiles. Varying degrees of success have been reported using a range of different polymers, biomolecules, and inorganic surface coatings. Advances in zwitterionic coatings show the best results for maintaining nanoparticle stability in solutions even under high salinity and temperature conditions, whereas coating by the soil component humic acid may show additional benefits such as promoting dissolution and enhancing bioavailability in soils. Pre-tuning of NP surface properties through exposure to select natural organic matter, microbial products, and other biopolymers may yield more cost-effective nonagglomerating metal/metal-oxide NPs for soil applications in agriculture.
  6. Pseudomonas chlororaphis isolates have been studied intensively for their beneficial traits. P. chlororaphis species function as probiotics in plants and fish, offering plants protection against microbes, nematodes and insects. In this review, we discuss the classification of P. chlororaphis isolates within four subspecies; the shared traits include the production of coloured antimicrobial phenazines, high sequence identity between housekeeping genes and similar cellular fatty acid composition. The direct antimicrobial, insecticidal and nematocidal effects of P. chlororaphis isolates are correlated with known metabolites. Other metabolites prime the plants for stress tolerance and participate in microbial cell signalling events and biofilm formation among other things. Formulations of P. chlororaphis isolates and their metabolites are currently being commercialized for agricultural use.
  7. Dissolution of CuO nanoparticles, releasing Cu ions, is a primary mechanism of Cu interaction in the rooting zone of plants. CuO dissolution is sometimes incorrectly considered negligible at high pH, since complexation of Cu with dissolved organic matter may enhance nanoparticle dissolution. Therefore data on the effects of plant-microbial-soil interactions on nanoparticle dissolution, particularly in alkaline soils, are needed. Dissolution of CuO nanoparticles (100 mg kg −1 Cu) was studied in sand supplemented with factorial combinations of wheat growth, a root-colonizing bacterium, and saturated paste extracts (SPEs) from three alkaline, calcareous soils. In control sand systems with 3.34 mM Ca(NO 3 ) 2 solution, dissolved Cu was low (266 μg L −1 Cu). Addition of dissolved organic matter via wheat root metabolites and/or soil SPEs increased dissolved Cu to 795–6250 μg L −1 Cu. Dissolution was correlated with dissolved organic carbon ( R = 0.916, p < 0.0001). Ligands >3 kDa, presumably fulvic acid from the SPEs, complexed Cu driving solubility; the addition of plant exudates further increased solubility 1.5–3.5×. The root-colonizing bacterium decreased dissolved Cu in sand pore waters from planted systems due to metabolism of root exudates. Batch solubility studies (10 mg L −1 Cu) with the soilmore »SPEs and defined solutions containing bicarbonate or fulvic acid confirmed elevated CuO nanoparticle solubility at >7.5 pH. Nanoparticle dissolution was suppressed in batch experiments compared to sand, via nanoparticle organic matter coating or homoconjugation of dissolved organic matter. Alterations of CuO nanoparticles by soil organic matter, plant exudates, and bacteria will affect dissolution and bioavailability of the CuO nanoparticles in alkaline soils.« less
  8. CuO nanoparticles (NPs) are explored as fungicides and fertilizers, and are increasingly likely to be applied to agricultural soils. Consequently, interactions of CuO NPs with soil pore water (SPW) components, plants, and microbes must be understood. These experiments examined whether dissolved natural organic matter (DNOM) from SPW, or root/bacterial exudates, changed wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. v. Deloris) responses to 100 mg kg −1 (Cu/sand) as CuO NPs. Seedlings were grown in sand with 3.34 mM Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or one of three SPWs, differing in DNOM concentration and composition. At 10 days post-germination, CuO NPs stunted roots by 59% in the 3.34 mM Ca(NO 3 ) 2 and 26–35% in the three SPWs compared to plants grown without NPs. Malate, citrate, gluconate, and 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA), were elevated 1.3 to 5-fold in the rhizosphere with CuO NPs present. Cu was bioavailable through metallo-organic complexes, including Cu–DMA and Cu–gluconate. Fulvic acid in SPWs mitigated CuO NP-induced wheat root shortening. Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 eliminated malate and citrate in the rhizospheres, reduced rhizosphere dissolved Cu ∼18–66%, and reduced root Cu 39% across all SPWs while enhancing root stunting ∼17% more across all SPWs than non-inoculated wheat grown with CuO NPs. Thus,more »both SPW components and root microbial colonization influenced wheat responses to CuO NPs. These interactions are likely in agricultural soils with additional processes, such as ion sorption, to influence CuO NP phytotoxicity, highlighting the importance of considering not just the target plant, but soil properties and associated microbiomes when evaluating impacts of NPs in agricultural usage.« less