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  1. Phase change material Ge2Sb2Te5 tilted and helical nanorods films featuring 25 nm diameters are grown using the oblique and glancing angle deposition techniques. We provide insights on the growth process, structural integrity and optical responses
  2. We created a system for the characterization of Ge2Sb2Te5 starting with a 1550 nm CW laser and utilizing second harmonic generation through a PPLN crystal in order to achieve full pulse control at 775 nm.
  3. We present an advancement towards high speed (sub ps) phase change material based spatial light modulators by electrically addressing single pixels with high-speed optical monitoring at 1550nm light.
  4. Chalcogenide phase change materials based on germanium-antimony-tellurides (GST-PCMs) have shown outstanding properties in non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies due to their high write and read speeds, reversible phase transition, high degree of scalability, low power consumption, good data retention, and multi-level storage capability. However, GST-based PCMs have shown recent promise in other domains, such as in spatial light modulation, beam steering, and neuromorphic computing. This paper reviews the progress in GST-based PCMs and methods for improving the performance within the context of new applications that have come to light in recent years.
  5. A magnetron co-sputtering system was used for producing nickel-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST-Ni) thin films. The nickel content in the thin film was adjusted by the ratio of the plasma discharge power applied to the GST and nickel targets, as well as a physical shuttering technique to further control the nickel deposition rate. The doping concentration of the film was con firmed using Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) technique. Results from a four-point probe measurement indicate that the nickel doping can reduce the resistivity of GST in the amorphous state by nearly three orders of magnitude. The dopant's influence on crystallization behavior was studied by analyzing X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of the pure GST and GST-Ni at different annealing temperatures. To examine the structural changes due to the nickel dopant, the thin films were investigated with the aid of Raman scattering. Additionally, we extracted the optical constants for both the amorphous and crystalline states of undoped-GST and GST-Ni films by ellipsometry. The results indicate that at low doping concentrations nickel does not appreciably affect the optical constants, but dramatically improves the electrical conductivity. Therefore, nickel-doping of GST a viable method for designing optical devices for lower operating voltages at higher switching speeds.