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  1. Abstract

    Nonlinear photocurrent in time-reversal invariant noncentrosymmetric systems such as ferroelectric semimetals sparked tremendous interest of utilizing nonlinear optics to characterize condensed matter with exotic phases. Here we provide a microscopic theory of two types of second-order nonlinear direct photocurrents, magnetic shift photocurrent (MSC) and magnetic injection photocurrent (MIC), as the counterparts of normal shift current (NSC) and normal injection current (NIC) in time-reversal symmetry and inversion symmetry broken systems. We show that MSC is mainly governed by shift vector and interband Berry curvature, and MIC is dominated by absorption strength and asymmetry of the group velocity difference at time-reversed ±kpoints. Taking$${\cal{P}}{\cal{T}}$$PT-symmetric magnetic topological quantum material bilayer antiferromagnetic (AFM) MnBi2Te4as an example, we predict the presence of large MIC in the terahertz (THz) frequency regime which can be switched between two AFM states with time-reversed spin orderings upon magnetic transition. In addition, external electric field breaks$${\cal{P}}{\cal{T}}$$PTsymmetry and enables large NSC response in bilayer AFM MnBi2Te4, which can be switched by external electric field. Remarkably, both MIC and NSC are highly tunable under varying electric field due to the field-induced large Rashba and Zeeman splitting, resulting in large nonlinear photocurrent response down to a few THz regime, suggesting bilayer AFM-zMnBi2Te4as amore »tunable platform with rich THz and magneto-optoelectronic applications. Our results reveal that nonlinear photocurrent responses governed by NSC, NIC, MSC, and MIC provide a powerful tool for deciphering magnetic structures and interactions which could be particularly fruitful for probing and understanding magnetic topological quantum materials.

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  2. Abstract

    Under broken time reversal symmetry such as in the presence of external magnetic field or internal magnetization, a transverse voltage can be established in materials perpendicular to both longitudinal current and applied magnetic field, known as classical Hall effect. However, this symmetry constraint can be relaxed in the nonlinear regime, thereby enabling nonlinear anomalous Hall current in time-reversal invariant materials – an underexplored realm with exciting new opportunities beyond classical linear Hall effect. Here, using group theory and first-principles theory, we demonstrate a remarkable ferroelectric nonlinear anomalous Hall effect in time-reversal invariant few-layer WTe2where nonlinear anomalous Hall current switches in odd-layer WTe2except 1T′ monolayer while remaining invariant in even-layer WTe2upon ferroelectric transition. This even-odd oscillation of ferroelectric nonlinear anomalous Hall effect was found to originate from the absence and presence of Berry curvature dipole reversal and shift dipole reversal due to distinct ferroelectric transformation in even and odd-layer WTe2. Our work not only treats Berry curvature dipole and shift dipole on an equal footing to account for intraband and interband contributions to nonlinear anomalous Hall effect, but also establishes Berry curvature dipole and shift dipole as new order parameters for noncentrosymmetric materials. The present findings suggest that ferroelectric metalsmore »and Weyl semimetals may offer unprecedented opportunities for the development of nonlinear quantum electronics.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 24, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  5. Antiferromagnets are interesting materials for spintronics because of their faster dynamics and robustness against perturbations from magnetic fields. Control of the antiferromagnetic order constitutes an important step towards applications, but has been limited to bulk materials so far. Here, using spatially resolved second-harmonic generation, we show direct evidence of long-range antiferromagnetic order and Ising-type Néel vector switching in monolayer MnPSe3 with large XY anisotropy. In additional to thermally induced switching, uniaxial strain can rotate the Néel vector, aligning it to a general in-plane direction irrespective of the crystal axes. A change of the universality class of the phase transition in the XY model under uniaxial strain causes this emergence of strain-controlled Ising order in the XY magnet MnPSe3. Our discovery is a further ingredient for compact antiferromagnetic spintronic devices in the two-dimensional limit.
  6. The discovery and control of new phases of matter is a central endeavour in materials research. The emergence of atomically thin 2D materials, such as transition-metal dichalcogenides and monochalcogenides, has allowed the study of diffusive, displacive and quantum phase transitions in 2D. In this Review, we discuss the thermodynamic and kinetic features of 2D phase transitions arising from dimensionality confinement, elasticity, electrostatics, defects and chemistry unique to 2D materials. We highlight polymorphic, ferroic and high-temperature diffusive phase changes, and examine the technological potential of controlled 2D phase transitions. Finally, we give an outlook to future opportunities in the study and applications of 2D phase transitions, and identify key challenges that remain to be addressed.
  7. Kim, Philip (Ed.)
    Crystalline two-dimensional (2D) superconductors (SCs) with low carrier density are an exciting new class of materials in which electrostatic gating can tune superconductivity, electronic interactions play a prominent role, and electrical transport properties may directly reflect the topology of the Fermi surface. Here, we report the dramatic enhancement of superconductivity with decreasing thickness in semimetallic Td-MoTe2, with critical temperature (Tc) increasing up to 7.6 K for monolayers, a 60-fold increase with respect to the bulk Tc. We show that monolayers possess a similar electronic structure and density of states (DOS) as the bulk, implying that electronic interactions play a strong role in the enhanced superconductivity. Reflecting the low carrier density, the critical temperature, magnetic field, and current density are all tunable by an applied gate voltage. The response to high in-plane magnetic fields is distinct from that of other 2D SCs and reflects the canted spin texture of the electron pockets.