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  1. Abstract

    Near‐surface seismic velocity structure plays a critical role in ground motion amplification during large earthquakes. In particular, the local Vp/Vs ratio strongly influences the amplitude of Rayleigh waves. Previous studies have separately imaged 3D seismic velocity and Vp/Vs ratio at seismogenic depth, but lack regional coverage and/or fail to constrain the shallowest structure. Here, we combine three datasets with complementary sensitivity in a Bayesian joint inversion for shallow crustal shear velocity and near‐surface Vp/Vs ratio across Southern California. Receiver functions–including with an apparent delayed initial peak in sedimentary basins, and long considered a nuisance in receiver function imaging studies–highly correlate with short‐period Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurements and require the inclusion of a Vp/Vs parameter. The updated model includes near‐surface low shear velocity more in line with geotechnical layer estimates, and generally lower than expected Vp/Vs outside the basins suggesting widespread shallow fracturing and/or groundwater undersaturation.

     
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  2. Abstract

    The Formosa array, with 137 broadband seismometers and ∼5 km station spacing, was deployed recently in Northern Taiwan. Here by using eight months of continuous ambient noise records, we construct the first high‐resolution three‐dimensional (3‐D) shear wave velocity model of the crust in the area. We first calculate multi‐component cross‐correlations to extract robust Rayleigh wave signals. We then determine phase velocity maps between 3 and 10 s periods using Eikonal tomography and measure Rayleigh wave ellipticity at each station location between 2 and 13 s periods. For each location, we jointly invert the two types of Rayleigh wave measurements with a Bayesian‐based inversion method for a one‐dimensional shear wave velocity model. All piecewise continuous one‐dimensional models are then used to construct the final 3‐D model. Our 3‐D model reveals upper crustal structures that correlate well with surface geological features. Near the surface, the model delineates the low‐velocity Taipei and Ilan Basins from the adjacent fast‐velocity mountainous areas, with basin geometries consistent with the results of previous geophysical exploration and geological studies. At a greater depth, low velocity anomalies are observed associated with the Linkou Tableland, Tatun Volcano Group, and a possible dyke intrusion beneath the Southern Ilan Basin. The model also provides new geometrical constraints on the major active fault systems in the area, which are important to understand the basin formation, orogeny dynamics, and regional seismic hazard. The new 3‐D shear wave velocity model allows a comprehensive investigation of shallow geologic structures in the Northern Taiwan.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Steamboat Geyser in Yellowstone National Park is the tallest active geyser on Earth and is believed to have hydrologic connection to Cistern Spring, a hydrothermal pool ∼100 m southwest from the geyser vent. Despite broad scientific interest, rare episodic Steamboat eruptions have made it difficult to study its eruption dynamics and underground plumbing architecture. In response to the recent reactivation of Steamboat, which has produced more than 130 eruptions since March 2018, we deployed a dense seismic nodal array surrounding the enigmatic geyser in the summer of 2019. The array recorded abundant 1–5 Hz hydrothermal tremor originating from phase‐transition events within both Steamboat Geyser and Cistern Spring. To constrain the spatiotemporal distribution of the tremor sources, an interferometric‐based polarization analysis was developed. The observed tremor locations indicate that the conduit beneath Steamboat is vertical and extends down to ∼120 m depth and the plumbing of Cistern includes a shallow vertical conduit connecting with a deep, large, and laterally offset reservoir ∼60 m southeast of the surface pool. No direct connection between Steamboat and Cistern plumbing structures is found. The temporal variation of tremor combined within situtemperature and water depth measurements of Cistern reveals interaction between Steamboat and Cistern throughout the eruption/recharge cycles. The observed delayed responses of Cistern Spring in reaction to Steamboat eruptions and recharge suggest that the two plumbing structures may be connected through a fractured/porous medium instead of a direct open channel, consistent with our inferred plumbing structure.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We present observations and modeling of spatial eigen‐functions of resonating waves within fault zone waveguide, using data recorded on a dense seismic array across the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) in southern California. The array consists of 5‐Hz geophones that cross the SJFZ with ~10–30 m spacing at the Blackburn Saddle near the Hemet Stepover. Wavefield snapshots after theSwave arrival are consistent for more than 50 near‐fault events, suggesting that this pattern is controlled by the fault zone structure rather than source properties. Data from example event with high signal to noise ratio show three main frequency peaks at ~1.3, ~2.0, and ~2.8 Hz in the amplitude spectra of resonance waves averaged over stations near the fault. The data are modeled with analytical expressions for eigen‐functions of resonance waves in a low‐velocity layer (fault zone) between two quarter‐spaces. Using a grid search‐based method, we investigate the possible width of the waveguide, location within the array, and shear wave velocities of the media that fit well the resonance signal at ~1.3 Hz. The results indicate a ~300 m wide damaged fault zone layer with ~65%Swave velocity reduction compared to the host rock. The SW edge of the low‐velocity zone is near the mapped fault surface trace, indicating that the damage zone is asymmetrically located at the regionally faster NE crustal block. The imaging resolution of the fault zone structure can be improved by modeling fault zone resonance modes and trapped waves together.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone is one of the most well‐known hydrothermal features in the world. Despite abundant geophysical studies, the structure of Old Faithful's plumbing system beneath ~20‐m depth remained largely elusive. By deploying a temporary dense three‐component geophone array, we observe 1–5 Hz low‐frequency hydrothermal tremor originating from Old Faithful's deeper conduit. By applying seismic interferometry and polarization analyses, we track seismic tremor source migration throughout the eruption/recharge cycle. The tremor source drops rapidly to ~80‐m depth right after the eruption and gradually ascends vertically back to ~20‐m depth, coinciding with the previously inferred bubble trap location. Likely excited by the liquid/steam phase transition, the observed tremor source migration can provide new constraints on the recharge process and deeper conduit geometry. Combined with the shallow conduit structure from previous studies, these results provide constraints on the major fluid pathway down to 80‐m depth.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We use Eikonal tomography to derive phase and group velocities of surface waves for the plate boundary region in Southern California. Seismic noise data in the period range 2 and 20 s recorded in year 2014 by 346 stations with ~1‐ to 30‐km station spacing are analyzed. Rayleigh and Love wave phase travel times are measured using vertical‐vertical and transverse‐transverse noise cross correlations, and group travel times are derived from the phase measurements. Using the Eikonal equation for each location and period, isotropic phase and group velocities and 2‐psi azimuthal anisotropy are determined statistically with measurements from different virtual sources. Starting with the SCEC Community Velocity Model, the observed 2.5‐ to 16‐s isotropic phase and group dispersion curves are jointly inverted on a 0.05° × 0.05° grid to obtain local 1‐D piecewise shear wave velocity (Vs) models. Compared to the starting model, the final results have generally lowerVsin the shallow crust (top 3–10 km), particularly in areas such as basins and fault zones. The results also show clear velocity contrasts across the San Andreas, San Jacinto, Elsinore, and Garlock Faults and suggest that the San Andreas Fault southeast of San Gorgonio Pass is dipping to the northeast. Investigation of the nonuniqueness of the 1‐DVsinversion suggests that imaging the top 3‐kmVsstructure requires either shorter period (≤2 s) surface wave dispersion measurements or other types of data set such as Rayleigh wave ellipticity.

     
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  7. Abstract

    Through the Alaska Transportable Array deployment of over 200 stations, we create a 3‐D tomographic model of Alaska with sensitivity ranging from the near surface (<1 km) into the upper mantle (~140 km). We perform a Markov chain Monte Carlo joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase velocities, from both ambient noise and earthquake measurements, along with receiver functions to create a shear wave velocity model. We also use a follow‐up phase velocity inversion to resolve interstation structure. By comparing our results to previous tomography, geology, and geophysical studies we are able to validate our findings and connect localized near‐surface studies with deeper, regional models. Specifically, we are able to resolve shallow basins, including the Copper River, Cook Inlet, Yukon Flats, Nenana, and a variety of other shallower basins. Additionally, we gain insight on the interaction between the upper mantle wedge, asthenosphere, and active and nonactive volcanism along the Aleutians and Denali volcanic gap, respectively. We observe thicker crust beneath the Brooks Range and south of the Denali fault within the Wrangellia Composite Terrane and thinner crust in the Yukon Composite Terrane in interior Alaska. We also gain new perspective on the Wrangell Volcanic Field and its interaction between surrounding asthenosphere and the Yakutat Terrane.

     
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  8. ABSTRACT The ability to monitor seismicity and structural integrity of a mine using seismic noise can have great implication for detecting and managing ground-control hazards. The noise wavefield, however, is complicated by induced seismicity and heavy machinery associated with mining operations. In this study, we investigate the nature of time-dependent noise cross-correlations functions (CCFs) across an active underground longwall coal mine. We analyze one month of continuous data recorded by a surface 17 geophone array with an average station spacing of ∼200 m. To extract coherent seismic signals, we calculate CCFs between all stations for each 5-min window. Close inspection of all 5-min CCFs reveals waveforms that can be categorically separated into two groups, one with strong and coherent 1–5 Hz signals and one without. Using a reference station pair, we statistically isolate time windows within each group based on the correlation coefficient between each 5-min CCF and the monthly stacked CCF. The daily stacked CCFs associated with a high correlation coefficient show a clear temporal variation that is consistent with the progression of mining activity. In contrast, the daily stacked CCFs associated with a low correlation coefficient remain stationary throughout the recording period in line with the expected persistent background noise. To further understand the nature of the high correlation coefficient CCFs, we perform 2D and 3D back projection to determine and track the dominant noise source location. Excellent agreement is observed on both short (5-min) and long (daily) time scales between the CCF determined source locations, the overall migration of the active mining operation, and cataloged seismic event locations. The workflow presented in this study demonstrates an effective way to identify and track mining induced signals, in which CCFs associated with background noise can be isolated and used for further temporal structural integrity investigation. 
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  9. Abstract We construct a 3D shear velocity model of the Salt Lake Valley using Rayleigh waves excited by the 31 March 2020 Mw 6.5 central Idaho earthquake recorded on a 168-station temporary nodal geophone network and the 49-station permanent regional network. The temporary array—deployed in response to the March 18 Mw 5.7 Magna earthquake—serendipitously recorded clear surface waves between 10 and 20 s period from the Idaho event at ∼500 km epicentral distance, from which we measure both Rayleigh wave phase velocity and ellipticity (H/V ratio). In addition, we employ multicomponent earthquake coda cross correlation to extend the measurements down to 5 s period. Because Rayleigh wave ellipticity features outstanding shallow sensitivity, we invert for a 3D upper crust VS model of the Salt Lake Valley. Our model shows basin structure in general agreement with and complements the current Community Velocity Model, which is mostly constrained by borehole and gravity measurements. Our model thus provides critical information for future earthquake hazard assessment studies, which require detailed shallow velocity structure. 
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