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For a polygon P with holes in the plane, we denote by ϱ(P) the ratio between the geodesic and the Euclidean diameters of P. It is shown that over all convex polygons with h convex holes, the supremum of ϱ(P) is between Ω(h1/3) and O(h1/2) . The upper bound improves to O(1+min{h3/4Δ,h1/2Δ1/2}) if every hole has diameter at most Δ⋅diam2(P) ; and to O(1) if every hole is a fat convex polygon. Furthermore, we show that the function g(h)=supPϱ(P) over convex polygons with h convex holes has the same growth rate as an analogous quantity over geometric triangulations with h vertices when h→∞more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available June 3, 2024

Given a set S of n points in the plane and a parameter ε>0, a Euclidean (1+ε) spanner is a geometric graph G=(S,E) that contains a path of weight at most (1+ε)∥pq∥2 for all p,q∈S . We show that the minimum weight of a Euclidean (1+ε)spanner for n points in the unit square [0,1]2 is O(ε−3/2n−−√), and this bound is the best possible. The upper bound is based on a new spanner algorithm that sparsifies Yaographs. It improves upon the baseline O(ε−2n−−√), obtained by combining a tight bound for the weight of an MST and a tight bound for the lightness of Euclidean (1+ε)spanners, which is the ratio of the spanner weight to the weight of the MST. The result generalizes to dspace for all d∈N : The minimum weight of a Euclidean (1+ε)spanner for n points in the unit cube [0,1]d is Od(ε(1−d2)/dn(d−1)/d), and this bound is the best possible. For the n×n section of the integer lattice, we show that the minimum weight of a Euclidean (1+ε)spanner is between Ω(ε−3/4n2) and O(ε−1log(ε−1)n2). These bounds become Ω(ε−3/4n−−√) and O(ε−1log(ε−1)n−−√) when scaled to a grid of n points in [0,1]2. .more » « less

Given a metric space ℳ = (X,δ), a weighted graph G over X is a metric tspanner of ℳ if for every u,v ∈ X, δ(u,v) ≤ δ_G(u,v) ≤ t⋅ δ(u,v), where δ_G is the shortest path metric in G. In this paper, we construct spanners for finite sets in metric spaces in the online setting. Here, we are given a sequence of points (s₁, …, s_n), where the points are presented one at a time (i.e., after i steps, we have seen S_i = {s₁, … , s_i}). The algorithm is allowed to add edges to the spanner when a new point arrives, however, it is not allowed to remove any edge from the spanner. The goal is to maintain a tspanner G_i for S_i for all i, while minimizing the number of edges, and their total weight. Under the L₂norm in ℝ^d for arbitrary constant d ∈ ℕ, we present an online (1+ε)spanner algorithm with competitive ratio O_d(ε^{d} log n), improving the previous bound of O_d(ε^{(d+1)}log n). Moreover, the spanner maintained by the algorithm has O_d(ε^{1d}log ε^{1})⋅ n edges, almost matching the (offline) optimal bound of O_d(ε^{1d})⋅ n. In the plane, a tighter analysis of the same algorithm provides an almost quadratic improvement of the competitive ratio to O(ε^{3/2}logε^{1}log n), by comparing the online spanner with an instanceoptimal spanner directly, bypassing the comparison to an MST (i.e., lightness). As a counterpart, we design a sequence of points that yields a Ω_d(ε^{d}) lower bound for the competitive ratio for online (1+ε)spanner algorithms in ℝ^d under the L₁norm. Then we turn our attention to online spanners in general metrics. Note that, it is not possible to obtain a spanner with stretch less than 3 with a subquadratic number of edges, even in the offline setting, for general metrics. We analyze an online version of the celebrated greedy spanner algorithm, dubbed ordered greedy. With stretch factor t = (2k1)(1+ε) for k ≥ 2 and ε ∈ (0,1), we show that it maintains a spanner with O(ε^{1}logε^{1})⋅ n^{1+1/k} edges and O(ε^{1}n^{1/k}log² n) lightness for a sequence of n points in a metric space. We show that these bounds cannot be significantly improved, by introducing an instance that achieves an Ω(1/k⋅ n^{1/k}) competitive ratio on both sparsity and lightness. Furthermore, we establish the tradeoff among stretch, number of edges and lightness for points in ultrametrics, showing that one can maintain a (2+ε)spanner for ultrametrics with O(ε^{1}logε^{1})⋅ n edges and O(ε^{2}) lightness.more » « less

Given a metric space ℳ = (X,δ), a weighted graph G over X is a metric tspanner of ℳ if for every u,v ∈ X, δ(u,v) ≤ δ_G(u,v) ≤ t⋅ δ(u,v), where δ_G is the shortest path metric in G. In this paper, we construct spanners for finite sets in metric spaces in the online setting. Here, we are given a sequence of points (s₁, …, s_n), where the points are presented one at a time (i.e., after i steps, we have seen S_i = {s₁, … , s_i}). The algorithm is allowed to add edges to the spanner when a new point arrives, however, it is not allowed to remove any edge from the spanner. The goal is to maintain a tspanner G_i for S_i for all i, while minimizing the number of edges, and their total weight. Under the L₂norm in ℝ^d for arbitrary constant d ∈ ℕ, we present an online (1+ε)spanner algorithm with competitive ratio O_d(ε^{d} log n), improving the previous bound of O_d(ε^{(d+1)}log n). Moreover, the spanner maintained by the algorithm has O_d(ε^{1d}log ε^{1})⋅ n edges, almost matching the (offline) optimal bound of O_d(ε^{1d})⋅ n. In the plane, a tighter analysis of the same algorithm provides an almost quadratic improvement of the competitive ratio to O(ε^{3/2}logε^{1}log n), by comparing the online spanner with an instanceoptimal spanner directly, bypassing the comparison to an MST (i.e., lightness). As a counterpart, we design a sequence of points that yields a Ω_d(ε^{d}) lower bound for the competitive ratio for online (1+ε)spanner algorithms in ℝ^d under the L₁norm. Then we turn our attention to online spanners in general metrics. Note that, it is not possible to obtain a spanner with stretch less than 3 with a subquadratic number of edges, even in the offline setting, for general metrics. We analyze an online version of the celebrated greedy spanner algorithm, dubbed ordered greedy. With stretch factor t = (2k1)(1+ε) for k ≥ 2 and ε ∈ (0,1), we show that it maintains a spanner with O(ε^{1}logε^{1})⋅ n^{1+1/k} edges and O(ε^{1}n^{1/k}log² n) lightness for a sequence of n points in a metric space. We show that these bounds cannot be significantly improved, by introducing an instance that achieves an Ω(1/k⋅ n^{1/k}) competitive ratio on both sparsity and lightness. Furthermore, we establish the tradeoff among stretch, number of edges and lightness for points in ultrametrics, showing that one can maintain a (2+ε)spanner for ultrametrics with O(ε^{1}logε^{1})⋅ n edges and O(ε^{2}) lightness.more » « less

We study the atomic embeddability testing problem, which is a common generalization of clustered planarity ( cplanarity , for short) and thickenability testing, and present a polynomialtime algorithm for this problem, thereby giving the first polynomialtime algorithm for cplanarity. Cplanarity was introduced in 1995 by Feng, Cohen, and Eades as a variant of graph planarity, in which the vertex set of the input graph is endowed with a hierarchical clustering and we seek an embedding (crossing free drawing) of the graph in the plane that respects the clustering in a certain natural sense. Until now, it has been an open problem whether cplanarity can be tested efficiently. The thickenability problem for simplicial complexes emerged in the topology of manifolds in the 1960s. A 2dimensional simplicial complex is thickenable if it embeds in some orientable 3dimensional manifold. Recently, Carmesin announced that thickenability can be tested in polynomial time. Our algorithm for atomic embeddability combines ideas from Carmesin’s work with algorithmic tools previously developed for weak embeddability testing. We express our results purely in terms of graphs on surfaces, and rely on the machinery of topological graph theory. Finally, we give a polynomialtime reduction from atomic embeddability to thickenability thereby showing that both problems are polynomially equivalent, and show that a slight generalization of atomic embeddability to the setting in which clusters are toroidal graphs is NPcomplete.more » « less

Mutzel, Petra ; Pagh, Rasmus ; Herman, Grzegorz (Ed.)

null (Ed.)Imagine t ≤ mn unitsquare tiles in an m×n rectangular box that you can tilt to cause all tiles to slide maximally in one of the four orthogonal directions. Given two tiles of interest, is there a tilt sequence that brings them to adjacent squares? We give a lineartime algorithm for this problem, motivated by 2048 endgames. We also bound the number of reachable configurations, and design instances where all t tiles permute according to a cyclic permutation every four tilts.more » « less