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  1. Abstract

    Owing in large part to the advent of integrated biphoton frequency combs, recent years have witnessed increased attention to quantum information processing in the frequency domain for its inherent high dimensionality and entanglement compatible with fiber-optic networks. Quantum state tomography of such states, however, has required complex and precise engineering of active frequency mixing operations, which are difficult to scale. To address these limitations, we propose a solution that employs a pulse shaper and electro-optic phase modulator to perform random operations instead of mixing in a prescribed manner. We successfully verify the entanglement and reconstruct the full density matrix of biphoton frequency combs generated from an on-chip Si3N4microring resonator in up to an 8 × 8-dimensional two-qudit Hilbert space, the highest dimension to date for frequency bins. More generally, our employed Bayesian statistical model can be tailored to a variety of quantum systems with restricted measurement capabilities, forming an opportunistic tomographic framework that utilizes all available data in an optimal way.

  2. Abstract

    We introduce a new statistical and variational approach to the phase estimation algorithm (PEA). Unlike the traditional and iterative PEAs which return only an eigenphase estimate, the proposed method can determine any unknown eigenstate–eigenphase pair from a given unitary matrix utilizing a simplified version of the hardware intended for the iterative PEA (IPEA). This is achieved by treating the probabilistic output of an IPEA-like circuit as an eigenstate–eigenphase proximity metric, using this metric to estimate the proximity of the input state and input phase to the nearest eigenstate–eigenphase pair and approaching this pair via a variational process on the input state and phase. This method may search over the entire computational space, or can efficiently search for eigenphases (eigenstates) within some specified range (directions), allowing those with some prior knowledge of their system to search for particular solutions. We show the simulation results of the method with the Qiskit package on the IBM Q platform and on a local computer.

  3. Abstract

    Designing quantum algorithms for simulating quantum systems has seen enormous progress, yet few studies have been done to develop quantum algorithms for open quantum dynamics despite its importance in modeling the system-environment interaction found in most realistic physical models. In this work we propose and demonstrate a general quantum algorithm to evolve open quantum dynamics on quantum computing devices. The Kraus operators governing the time evolution can be converted into unitary matrices with minimal dilation guaranteed by the Sz.-Nagy theorem. This allows the evolution of the initial state through unitary quantum gates, while using significantly less resource than required by the conventional Stinespring dilation. We demonstrate the algorithm on an amplitude damping channel using the IBM Qiskit quantum simulator and the IBM Q 5 Tenerife quantum device. The proposed algorithm does not require particular models of dynamics or decomposition of the quantum channel, and thus can be easily generalized to other open quantum dynamical models.

  4. Abstract

    The Phase Estimation Algorithm (PEA) is an important quantum algorithm used independently or as a key subroutine in other quantum algorithms. Currently most implementations of the PEA are based on qubits, where the computational units in the quantum circuits are 2D states. Performing quantum computing tasks with higher dimensional states—qudits —has been proposed, yet a qudit‐based PEA has not been realized. Using qudits can reduce the resources needed for achieving a given precision or success probability. Compared to other quantum computing hardware, photonic systems have the advantage of being resilient to noise, but the probabilistic nature of photon–photon interaction makes it difficult to realize two‐photon controlled gates that are necessary components in many quantum algorithms. In this work, an experimental realization of a qudit‐based PEA on a photonic platform is reported, utilizing the high dimensionality in time and frequency degrees of freedom (DoFs) in a single photon. The controlled‐unitary gates can be realized in a deterministic fashion, as the control and target registers are now represented by two DoFs in a single photon. This first implementation of a qudit PEA, on any platform, successfully retrieves any arbitrary phase with one ternary digit of precision.

  5. Precise knowledge of position and timing information is critical to support elementary protocols such as entanglement swapping on quantum networks. While approaches have been devised to use quantum light for such metrology, they largely rely on time-of-flight (ToF) measurements with single-photon detectors and, therefore, are limited to picosecond-scale resolution owing to detector jitter. In this work, we demonstrate an approach to distributed sensing that leverages phase modulation to map changes in the spectral phase to coincidence probability, thereby overcoming the limits imposed by single-photon detection. By extracting information about the joint biphoton phase, we measure a generalized delay—the difference in signal–idler arrival, relative to local radio frequency (RF) phase modulation. For nonlocal ranging measurements, we achieve (2σ<#comment/>) precision of±<#comment/>0.04psand for measurements of the relative RF phase, (2σ<#comment/>) precision of±<#comment/>0.7∘<#comment/>. We complement this fine timing information with ToF data from single-photon time-tagging to demonstrate absolute measurement of time delay. By relying on off-the-shelf telecommunications equipment and standard quantum resources, this approach has the potential to reduce overhead in practical quantum networks.

  6. Flexible grid wavelength division multiplexing is a powerful tool in lightwave communications to maximize spectral efficiency. In the emerging field of quantum networking, the need for effective resource provisioning is particularly acute, given the generally lower power levels, higher sensitivity to loss, and inapplicability of optical detection and retransmission. In this letter, we leverage flex grid technology to demonstrate reconfigurable distribution of quantum entanglement in a four-user tabletop network. By adaptively partitioning bandwidth with a single wavelength-selective switch, we successfully equalize two-party coincidence rates that initially differ by over two orders of magnitude. Our scalable approach introduces loss that is fixed with the number of users, offering a practical path for the establishment and management of quality-of-service guarantees in large quantum networks.