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  1. In this paper, we present a blockwise optimization method for masking-based networks (BLOOM-Net) for training scalable speech enhancement networks. Here, we design our network with a residual learning scheme and train the internal separator blocks sequentially to obtain a scalable masking-based deep neural network for speech enhancement. Its scalability lets it dynamically adjust the run-time complexity depending on the test time environment. To this end, we modularize our models in that they can flexibly accommodate varying needs for enhancement performance and constraints on the resources, incurring minimal memory or training overhead due to the added scalability. Our experiments on speech enhancement demonstrate that the proposed blockwise optimization method achieves the desired scalability with only a slight performance degradation compared to corresponding models trained end-to-end.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 23, 2023
  2. Recently Homomorphic Encryption (HE) is used to implement Privacy-Preserving Neural Networks (PPNNs) that perform inferences directly on encrypted data without decryption. Prior PPNNs adopt mobile network architectures such as SqueezeNet for smaller computing overhead, but we find naïvely using mobile network architectures for a PPNN does not necessarily achieve shorter inference latency. Despite having less parameters, a mobile network architecture typically introduces more layers and increases the HE multiplicative depth of a PPNN, thereby prolonging its inference latency. In this paper, we propose a \textbf{HE}-friendly privacy-preserving \textbf{M}obile neural n\textbf{ET}work architecture, \textbf{HEMET}. Experimental results show that, compared to state-of-the-art (SOTA) PPNNs, HEMET reduces the inference latency by $59.3%\sim 61.2%$, and improves the inference accuracy by $0.4 % \sim 0.5%$.
  3. Acoustofluidics, by combining acoustics and microfluidics, provides a unique means to manipulate cells and liquids for broad applications in biomedical sciences and translational medicine. However, it is challenging to standardize and maintain excellent performance of current acoustofluidic devices and systems due to a multiplicity of factors including device-to-device variation, manual operation, environmental factors, sample variability, etc. Herein, to address these challenges, we propose “intelligent acoustofluidics” – an automated system that involves acoustofluidic device design, sensor fusion, and intelligent controller integration. As a proof-of-concept, we developed intelligent acoustofluidics based mini-bioreactors for human brain organoid culture. Our mini-bioreactors consist of three components: (1) rotors for contact-free rotation via an acoustic spiral phase vortex approach, (2) a camera for real-time tracking of rotational actions, and (3) a reinforcement learning-based controller for closed-loop regulation of rotational manipulation. After training the reinforcement learning-based controller in simulation and experimental environments, our mini-bioreactors can achieve the automated rotation of rotors in well-plates. Importantly, our mini-bioreactors can enable excellent control over rotational mode, direction, and speed of rotors, regardless of fluctuations of rotor weight, liquid volume, and operating temperature. Moreover, we demonstrated our mini-bioreactors can stably maintain the rotational speed of organoids during long-term culture, and enhance neuralmore »differentiation and uniformity of organoids. Comparing with current acoustofluidics, our intelligent system has a superior performance in terms of automation, robustness, and accuracy, highlighting the potential of novel intelligent systems in microfluidic experimentation.« less
  4. Hybrid Privacy-Preserving Neural Network (HPPNN) implementing linear layers by Homomorphic Encryption (HE) and nonlinear layers by Garbled Circuit (GC) is one of the most promising secure solutions to emerging Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS). Unfortunately, a HPPNN suffers from long inference latency, e.g., ∼100 seconds per image, which makes MLaaS unsatisfactory. Because HE-based linear layers of a HPPNN cost 93% inference latency, it is critical to select a set of HE parameters to minimize computational overhead of linear layers. Prior HPPNNs over-pessimistically select huge HE parameters to maintain large noise budgets, since they use the same set of HE parameters for an entire network and ignore the error tolerance capability of a network. In this paper, for fast and accurate secure neural network inference, we propose an automated layer-wise parameter selector, AutoPrivacy, that leverages deep reinforcement learning to automatically determine a set of HE parameters for each linear layer in a HPPNN. The learning-based HE parameter selection policy outperforms conventional rule-based HE parameter selection policy. Compared to prior HPPNNs, AutoPrivacy-optimized HPPNNs reduce inference latency by 53%∼70% with negligible loss of accuracy.
  5. Because of the lack of expertise, to gain benefits from their data, average users have to upload their private data to cloud servers they may not trust. Due to legal or privacy constraints, most users are willing to contribute only their encrypted data, and lack interests or resources to join deep neural network (DNN) training in cloud. To train a DNN on encrypted data in a completely non-interactive way, a recent work proposes a fully homomorphic encryption (FHE)-based technique implementing all activations by \textit{Brakerski-Gentry-Vaikuntanathan} (BGV)-based lookup tables. However, such inefficient lookup-table-based activations significantly prolong private training latency of DNNs. In this paper, we propose, Glyph, an FHE-based technique to fast and accurately train DNNs on encrypted data by switching between TFHE (Fast Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Torus) and BGV cryptosystems. Glyph uses logic-operation-friendly TFHE to implement nonlinear activations, while adopts vectorial-arithmetic-friendly BGV to perform multiply-accumulations (MACs). Glyph further applies transfer learning on DNN training to improve test accuracy and reduce the number of MACs between ciphertext and ciphertext in convolutional layers. Our experimental results show Glyph obtains state-of-the-art accuracy, and reduces training latency by 69%~99% over prior FHE-based privacy-preserving techniques on encrypted datasets.
  6. Homomorphic Encryption (HE) based secure Neural Networks(NNs) inference is one of the most promising security solutions to emerging Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS). In the HE-based MLaaS setting, a client encrypts the sensitive data, and uploads the encrypted data to the server that directly processes the encrypted data without decryption, and returns the encrypted result to the client. The clients' data privacy is preserved since only the client has the private key. Existing HE-enabled Neural Networks (HENNs), however, suffer from heavy computational overheads. The state-of-the-art HENNs adopt ciphertext packing techniques to reduce homomorphic multiplications by packing multiple messages into one single ciphertext. Nevertheless, rotations are required in these HENNs to implement the sum of the elements within the same ciphertext. We observed that HENNs have to pay significant computing overhead on rotations, and each of rotations is ∼10× more expensive than homomorphic multiplications between ciphertext and plaintext. So the massive rotations have become a primary obstacle of efficient HENNs. In this paper, we propose a fast, frequency-domain deep neural network called Falcon, for fast inferences on encrypted data. Falcon includes a fast Homomorphic Discrete Fourier Transform (HDFT) using block-circulant matrices to homomorphically support spectral operations. We also propose severalmore »efficient methods to reduce inference latency, including Homomorphic Spectral Convolution and Homomorphic Spectral Fully Connected operations by combing the batched HE and block-circulant matrices. Our experimental results show Falcon achieves the state-of-the-art inference accuracy and reduces the inference latency by 45.45%∼85.34% over prior HENNs on MNIST and CIFAR-10.« less
  7. Nanopore genome sequencing is the key to enabling personalized medicine, global food security, and virus surveillance. The state-of-the-art base-callers adopt deep neural networks (DNNs) to translate electrical signals generated by nanopore sequencers to digital DNA symbols. A DNN-based base-caller consumes 44.5% of total execution time of a nanopore sequencing pipeline. However, it is difficult to quantize a base-caller and build a power-efficient processing-in-memory (PIM) to run the quantized base-caller. Although conventional network quantization techniques reduce the computing overhead of a base-caller by replacing floating-point multiply-accumulations by cheaper fixed-point operations, it significantly increases the number of systematic errors that cannot be corrected by read votes. The power density of prior nonvolatile memory (NVM)-based PIMs has already exceeded memory thermal tolerance even with active heat sinks, because their power efficiency is severely limited by analog-to-digital converters (ADC). Finally, Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) decoding and read voting cost 53.7% of total execution time in a quantized base-caller, and thus became its new bottleneck. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm/architecture co-designed PIM, Helix, to power-efficiently and accurately accelerate nanopore base-calling. From algorithm perspective, we present systematic error aware training to minimize the number of systematic errors in a quantized base-caller. From architecturemore »perspective, we propose a low-power SOT-MRAM-based ADC array to process analog-to-digital conversion operations and improve power efficiency of prior DNN PIMs. Moreover, we revised a traditional NVM-based dot-product engine to accelerate CTC decoding operations, and create a SOT-MRAM binary comparator array to process read voting. Compared to state-of-the-art PIMs, Helix improves base-calling throughput by 6x, throughput per Watt by 11.9x and per mm2 by 7.5x without degrading base-calling accuracy.« less
  8. Speech enhancement tasks have seen significant improvements with the advance of deep learning technology, but with the cost of increased computational complexity. In this study, we propose an adaptive boosting approach to learning locality sensitive hash codes, which represent audio spectra efficiently. We use the learned hash codes for single-channel speech denoising tasks as an alternative to a complex machine learning model, particularly to address the resource-constrained environments. Our adaptive boosting algorithm learns simple logistic regressors as the weak learners. Once trained, their binary classification results transform each spectrum of test noisy speech into a bit string. Simple bitwise operations calculate Hamming distance to find the K-nearest matching frames in the dictionary of training noisy speech spectra, whose associated ideal binary masks are averaged to estimate the denoising mask for that test mixture. Our proposed learning algorithm differs from AdaBoost in the sense that the projections are trained to minimize the distances between the self-similarity matrix of the hash codes and that of the original spectra, rather than the misclassification rate. We evaluate our discriminative hash codes on the TIMIT corpus with various noise types, and show comparative performance to deep learning methods in terms of denoising performance and complexity.