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  1. In supervised continual learning, a deep neural network (DNN) is updated with an ever-growing data stream. Unlike the offline setting where data is shuffled, we cannot make any distributional assumptions about the data stream. Ideally, only one pass through the dataset is needed for computational efficiency. However, existing methods are inadequate and make many assumptions that cannot be made for real-world applications, while simultaneously failing to improve computational efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel continual learning method, SIESTA based on wake/sleep framework for training, which is well aligned to the needs of on-device learning. The major goal of SIESTA is to advance compute efficient continual learning so that DNNs can be updated efficiently using far less time and energy. The principal innovations of SIESTA are: 1) rapid online updates using a rehearsal-free, backpropagation-free, and data-driven network update rule during its wake phase, and 2) expedited memory consolidation using a compute-restricted rehearsal policy during its sleep phase. For memory efficiency, SIESTA adapts latent rehearsal using memory indexing from REMIND. Compared to REMIND and prior arts, SIESTA is far more computationally efficient, enabling continual learning on ImageNet-1K in under 2 hours on a single GPU; moreover, in the augmentation-free setting it matches the performance of the offline learner, a milestone critical to driving adoption of continual learning in real-world applications. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  2. Supervised Continual learning involves updating a deep neural network (DNN) from an ever-growing stream of labeled data. While most work has focused on overcoming catastrophic forgetting, one of the major motivations behind continual learning is being able to efficiently update a network with new information, rather than retraining from scratch on the training dataset as it grows over time. Despite recent continual learning methods largely solving the catastrophic forgetting problem, there has been little attention paid to the efficiency of these algorithms. Here, we study recent methods for incremental class learning and illustrate that many are highly inefficient in terms of compute, memory, and storage. Some methods even require more compute than training from scratch! We argue that for continual learning to have real-world applicability, the research community cannot ignore the resources used by these algorithms. There is more to continual learning than mitigating catastrophic forgetting. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Real-time on-device continual learning is needed for new applications such as home robots, user personalization on smartphones, and augmented/virtual reality headsets. However, this setting poses unique challenges: embedded devices have limited memory and compute capacity and conventional machine learning models suffer from catastrophic forgetting when updated on non-stationary data streams. While several online continual learning models have been developed, their effectiveness for embedded applications has not been rigorously studied. In this paper, we first identify criteria that online continual learners must meet to effectively perform real-time, on-device learning. We then study the efficacy of several online continual learning methods when used with mobile neural networks. We measure their performance, memory usage, compute requirements, and ability to generalize to out-of-domain inputs. 
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  4. This paper presents an approach to detect out-of-context (OOC) objects in an image. Given an image with a set of objects, our goal is to determine if an object is inconsistent with the scene context and detect the OOC object with a bounding box. In this work, we consider commonly explored contextual relations such as co-occurrence relations, the relative size of an object with respect to other objects, and the position of the object in the scene. We posit that contextual cues are useful to determine object labels for in-context objects and inconsistent context cues are detrimental to determining object labels for out-of-context objects. To realize this hypothesis, we propose a graph contextual reasoning network (GCRN) to detect OOC objects. GCRN consists of two separate graphs to predict object labels based on the contextual cues in the image: 1) a representation graph to learn object features based on the neighboring objects and 2) a context graph to explicitly capture contextual cues from the neighboring objects. GCRN explicitly captures the contextual cues to improve the detection of in-context objects and identify objects that violate contextual relations. In order to evaluate our approach, we create a large-scale dataset by adding OOC object instances to the COCO images. We also evaluate on recent OCD benchmark. Our results show that GCRN outperforms competitive baselines in detecting OOC objects and correctly detecting in-context objects. 
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  5. Humans are incredibly good at transferring knowledge from one domain to another, enabling rapid learning of new tasks. Likewise, transfer learning has enabled enormous success in many computer vision problems using pretraining. However, the benefits of transfer in multi-domain learning, where a network learns multiple tasks defined by different datasets, has not been adequately studied. Learning multiple domains could be beneficial, or these domains could interfere with each other given limited network capacity. Understanding how deep neural networks of varied capacity facilitate transfer across inputs from different distributions is a critical step towards open world learning. In this work, we decipher the conditions where interference and knowledge transfer occur in multi-domain learning. We propose new metrics disentangling interference and transfer, set up experimental protocols, and examine the roles of network capacity, task grouping, and dynamic loss weighting in reducing interference and facilitating transfer. 
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  6. Dataset bias and spurious correlations can significantly impair generalization in deep neural networks. Many prior efforts have addressed this problem using either alternative loss functions or sampling strategies that focus on rare patterns. We propose a new direction: modifying the network architecture to impose inductive biases that make the network robust to dataset bias. Specifically, we propose OccamNets, which are biased to favor simpler solutions by design. OccamNets have two inductive biases. First, they are biased to use as little network depth as needed for an individual example. Second, they are biased toward using fewer image locations for prediction. While OccamNets are biased toward simpler hypotheses, they can learn more complex hypotheses if necessary. In experiments, OccamNets outperform or rival state-of-the-art methods run on architectures that do not incorporate these inductive biases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when the state-of-the-art debiasing methods are combined with OccamNets results further improve. 
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  7. Dataset download link: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_77AKsY5MoYpDnXgNkjWi9n2_mfQBW-F/view 
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  8. A critical problem in deep learning is that systems learn inappropriate biases, resulting in their inability to perform well on minority groups. This has led to the creation of multiple algorithms that endeavor to mitigate bias. However, it is not clear how effective these methods are. This is because study protocols differ among papers, systems are tested on datasets that fail to test many forms of bias, and systems have access to hidden knowledge or are tuned specifically to the test set. To address this, we introduce an improved evaluation protocol, sensible metrics, and a new dataset, which enables us to ask and answer critical questions about bias mitigation algorithms. We evaluate seven state-of-the-art algorithms using the same network architecture and hyperparameter selection policy across three benchmark datasets. We introduce a new dataset called Biased MNIST that enables assessment of robustness to multiple bias sources. We use Biased MNIST and a visual question answering (VQA) benchmark to assess robustness to hidden biases. Rather than only tuning to the test set distribution, we study robustness across different tuning distributions, which is critical because for many applications the test distribution may not be known during development. We find that algorithms exploit hidden biases, are unable to scale to multiple forms of bias, and are highly sensitive to the choice of tuning set. Based on our findings, we implore the community to adopt more rigorous assessment of future bias mitigation methods. All data, code, and results are publicly available. 
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  9. Abstract Replay is the reactivation of one or more neural patterns that are similar to the activation patterns experienced during past waking experiences. Replay was first observed in biological neural networks during sleep, and it is now thought to play a critical role in memory formation, retrieval, and consolidation. Replay-like mechanisms have been incorporated in deep artificial neural networks that learn over time to avoid catastrophic forgetting of previous knowledge. Replay algorithms have been successfully used in a wide range of deep learning methods within supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning paradigms. In this letter, we provide the first comprehensive comparison between replay in the mammalian brain and replay in artificial neural networks. We identify multiple aspects of biological replay that are missing in deep learning systems and hypothesize how they could be used to improve artificial neural networks. 
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  10. Artificial intelligence (AI) has been successful at solving numerous problems in machine perception. In radiology, AI systems are rapidly evolving and show progress in guiding treatment decisions, diagnosing, localizing disease on medical images, and improving radiologists' efficiency. A critical component to deploying AI in radiology is to gain confidence in a developed system's efficacy and safety. The current gold standard approach is to conduct an analytical validation of performance on a generalization dataset from one or more institutions, followed by a clinical validation study of the system's efficacy during deployment. Clinical validation studies are time-consuming, and best practices dictate limited re-use of analytical validation data, so it is ideal to know ahead of time if a system is likely to fail analytical or clinical validation. In this paper, we describe a series of sanity tests to identify when a system performs well on development data for the wrong reasons. We illustrate the sanity tests' value by designing a deep learning system to classify pancreatic cancer seen in computed tomography scans. 
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