We review recent advances in algorithmic development and validation for modeling and control of soft robots leveraging the Koopman operator theory.
We identify the following trends in recent research efforts in this area. (1) The design of lifting functions used in the data-driven approximation of the Koopman operator is critical for soft robots. (2) Robustness considerations are emphasized. Works are proposed to reduce the effect of uncertainty and noise during the process of modeling and control. (3) The Koopman operator has been embedded into different model-based control structures to drive the soft robots.
Because of their compliance and nonlinearities, modeling and control of soft robots face key challenges. To resolve these challenges, Koopman operator-based approaches have been proposed, in an effort to express the nonlinear system in a linear manner. The Koopman operator enables global linearization to reduce nonlinearities and/or serves as model constraints in model-based control algorithms for soft robots. Various implementations in soft robotic systems are illustrated and summarized in the review.