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  1. Abstract

    In neuromorphic computing, artificial synapses provide a multi‐weight (MW) conductance state that is set based on inputs from neurons, analogous to the brain. Herein, artificial synapses based on magnetic materials that use a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) and a magnetic domain wall (DW) are explored. By fabricating lithographic notches in a DW track underneath a single MTJ, 3–5 stable resistance states that can be repeatably controlled electrically using spin‐orbit torque are achieved. The effect of geometry on the synapse behavior is explored, showing that a trapezoidal device has asymmetric weight updates with high controllability, while a rectangular device has higher stochasticity, but with stable resistance levels. The device data is input into neuromorphic computing simulators to show the usefulness of application‐specific synaptic functions. Implementing an artificial neural network (NN) applied to streamed Fashion‐MNIST data, the trapezoidal magnetic synapse can be used as a metaplastic function for efficient online learning. Implementing a convolutional NN for CIFAR‐100 image recognition, the rectangular magnetic synapse achieves near‐ideal inference accuracy, due to the stability of its resistance levels. This work shows MW magnetic synapses are a feasible technology for neuromorphic computing and provides design guidelines for emerging artificial synapse technologies.

     
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  2. Abstract Topological solitons are exciting candidates for the physical implementation of next-generation computing systems. As these solitons are nanoscale and can be controlled with minimal energy consumption, they are ideal to fulfill emerging needs for computing in the era of big data processing and storage. Magnetic domain walls (DWs) and magnetic skyrmions are two types of topological solitons that are particularly exciting for next-generation computing systems in light of their non-volatility, scalability, rich physical interactions, and ability to exhibit non-linear behaviors. Here we summarize the development of computing systems based on magnetic topological solitons, highlighting logical and neuromorphic computing with magnetic DWs and skyrmions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 25, 2024
  3. The exceptional capabilities of the human brain provide inspiration for artificially intelligent hardware that mimics both the function and the structure of neurobiology. In particular, the recent development of nanodevices with biomimetic characteristics promises to enable the development of neuromorphic architectures with exceptional computational efficiency. In this work, we propose biomimetic neurons comprised of domain wall-magnetic tunnel junctions that can be integrated into the first trainable CMOS-free recurrent neural network with biomimetic components. This paper demonstrates the computational effectiveness of this system for benchmark tasks and its superior computational efficiency relative to alternative approaches for recurrent neural networks. 
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  4. Magnetic skyrmions are nanoscale whirls of magnetism that can be propagated with electrical currents. The repulsion between skyrmions inspires their use for reversible computing based on the elastic billiard ball collisions proposed for conservative logic in 1982. Here we evaluate the logical and physical reversibility of this skyrmion logic paradigm, as well as the limitations that must be addressed before dissipation-free computation can be realized. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Spintronic devices, especially those based on motion of a domain wall (DW) through a ferromagnetic track, have received a significant amount of interest in the field of neuromorphic computing because of their non-volatility and intrinsic current integration capabilities. Many spintronic neurons using this technology have already been proposed, but they also require external circuitry or additional device layers to implement other important neuronal behaviors. Therefore, they result in an increase in fabrication complexity and/or energy consumption. In this work, we discuss three neurons that implement these functions without the use of additional circuitry or material layers. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    The domain wall-magnetic tunnel junction (DW-MTJ) is a spintronic device that enables efficient logic circuit design because of its low energy consumption, small size, and non-volatility. Furthermore, the DW-MTJ is one of the few spintronic devices for which a direct cascading mechanism is experimentally demonstrated without any extra buffers; this enables potential design and fabrication of a large-scale DW-MTJ logic system. However, DW-MTJ logic relies on the conversion between electrical signals and magnetic states which is sensitive to process imperfection. Therefore, it is important to analyze the robustness of such DW-MTJ devices to anticipate the system reliability before fabrication. Here we propose a new DW-MTJ model that integrates the impacts of process variation to enable the analysis and optimization of DW-MTJ logic. This will allow circuit and device design that enhances the robustness of DW-MTJ logic and advances the development of energy-efficient spintronic computing systems. 
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  7. Drouhin, Henri-Jean M. ; Wegrowe, Jean-Eric ; Razeghi, Manijeh (Ed.)
    Neuromorphic computing captures the quintessential neural behaviors of the brain and is a promising candidate for the beyond-von Neumann computer architectures, featuring low power consumption and high parallelism. The neuronal lateral inhibition feature, closely associated with the biological receptive eld, is crucial to neuronal competition in the nervous system as well as its neuromorphic hardware counterpart. The domain wall - magnetic tunnel junction (DW-MTJ) neuron is an emerging spintronic arti cial neuron device exhibiting intrinsic lateral inhibition. This work discusses lateral inhibition mechanism of the DW-MTJ neuron and shows by micromagnetic simulation that lateral inhibition is eciently enhanced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). 
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  8. Due to their non-volatility and intrinsic current integration capabilities, spintronic devices that rely on domain wall (DW) motion through a free ferromagnetic track have garnered significant interest in the field of neuromorphic computing. Although a number of such devices have already been proposed, they require the use of external circuitry to implement several important neuronal behaviors. As such, they are likely to result in either a decrease in energy efficiency, an increase in fabrication complexity, or even both. To resolve this issue, we have proposed three individual neurons that are capable of performing these functionalities without the use of any external circuitry. To implement leaking, the first neuron uses a dipolar coupling field, the second uses an anisotropy gradient, and the third uses shape variations of the DW track. 
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