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  1. Abstract

    Photoredox nickel catalysis has emerged as a powerful strategy for cross-coupling reactions. Although the involvement of paramagnetic Ni(I)/Ni(III) species as active intermediates in the catalytic cycle has been proposed, a thorough spectroscopic investigation of these species is lacking. Herein, we report the tridentate pyridinophane ligandsRN3 that allow for detailed mechanistic studies of the photocatalytic C–O coupling reaction. The derived (RN3)Ni complexes are active catalysts under mild conditions and without an additional photocatalyst. We also provide direct evidence for the key steps involving paramagnetic Ni species in the proposed catalytic cycle: the oxidative addition of an aryl halide to a Ni(I) species, the ligand exchange/transmetalation at a Ni(III) center, and the C–O reductive elimination from a Ni(III) species. Overall, the present work suggests theRN3 ligands are a practical platform for mechanistic studies of Ni-catalyzed reactions and for the development of new catalytic applications.

     
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  2. An isolated Ni( ii )-nitrosyl complex supported by the bulky tridentate 1,4,7-triisopropyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (iPr 3 TACN) ligand was obtained from the reaction of a Ni( ii ) dimethyl complex with NOPF 6 , suggesting the in situ formation of a Ni( i ) species that reacts with the resulting NO product. Use of a π-acceptor ancillary isocyanide ligand led to the isolation and characterization of an uncommon 5-coordinate Ni( i ) complex supported by the iPr 3 TACN ligand and tert -butylisocyanide. 
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  3. Herein, the pyridinophanetetradentate ligand 3,6,9-trimethyl-3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene, PyNMe 3 , is used to isolate and structurally characterize well-defined organometallic Ni( ii ) and Ni( iii ) complexes bearing the cycloneophyl fragment, an alkyl/aryl C-donor ligand. Furthermore, spectroscopic and cryo-mass spectrometry studies suggest the formation of a transient Ni( iv ) organometallic complex, and its relevance to C–C and C–O bond formation reactivity studies is discussed. 
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  4. A bioinspired (N2S2)Ni( ii ) electrocatalyst is reported that produces H 2 from CF 3 CO 2 H with a turnover frequency (TOF) of ∼1250 s −1 at low acid concentration (<0.043 M) in MeCN. A mechanism for the H 2 production by this electrocatalyst is proposed and its activity is benchmarked against those of other reported molecular Ni H 2 evolution electrocatalysts. The involvement of a hemilabile pyridyl group of the N2S2 ligand is proposed to mimic the role of a cysteine residue involved in the biological proton reduction performed by [NiFe] hydrogenases. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Herein we report the isolation, characterization, and photoreactivity of a stable Ni III dichloride complex supported by a tetradentate pyridinophane N-donor ligand. Upon irradiation, this complex undergoes an efficient photoreductive chlorine elimination reaction, both in solution and the solid-state. Subsequently, the Ni III Cl 2 species can be regenerated via a reaction with PhICl 2 . 
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  6. Nickel complexes have been widely employed as catalysts in C–C and C–heteroatom bond formation reactions. While Ni(0), Ni( i ), and Ni( ii ) intermediates are most relevant in these transformations, recently Ni( iii ) and Ni( iv ) species have also been proposed to play a role in catalysis. Reported herein is the synthesis, detailed characterization, and reactivity of a series of Ni( ii ) and Ni( iii ) metallacycle complexes stabilized by tetradentate pyridinophane ligands with various N-substituents. Interestingly, while the oxidation of the Ni( ii ) complexes with various other oxidants led to exclusive C–C bond formation in very good yields, the use of O 2 or H 2 O 2 as oxidants led to formation of appreciable amounts of C–O bond formation products, especially for the Ni( ii ) complex supported by an asymmetric pyridinophane ligand containing one tosyl N-substituent. Moreover, cryo-ESI-MS studies support the formation of several high-valent Ni species as key intermediates in this uncommon Ni-mediated oxygenase-type chemistry. 
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