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  1. Abstract

    Remanufacturing sites often receive products with different brands, models, conditions, and quality levels. Proper sorting and classification of the waste stream is a primary step in efficiently recovering and handling used products. The correct classification is particularly crucial in future electronic waste (e-waste) management sites equipped with Artificial Intelligence (AI) and robotic technologies. Robots should be enabled with proper algorithms to recognize and classify products with different features and prepare them for assembly and disassembly tasks. In this study, two categories of Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques are used to classify consumer electronics. ML models include Naïve Bayes with Bernoulli, Gaussian, Multinomial distributions, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms with four kernels of Linear, Radial Basis Function (RBF), Polynomial, and Sigmoid. While DL models include VGG-16, GoogLeNet, Inception-v3, Inception-v4, and ResNet-50. The above-mentioned models are used to classify three laptop brands, including Apple, HP, and ThinkPad. First the Edge Histogram Descriptor (EHD) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) are used to extract features as inputs to ML models for classification. DL models use laptop images without pre-processing on feature extraction. The trained models are slightly overfitting due to the limited dataset and complexity of model parameters. Despite slight overfitting, the models can identify each brand. The findings prove that DL models outperform them of ML. Among DL models, GoogLeNet has the highest performance in identifying the laptop brands.

     
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Remanufacturing sites often receive products with different brands, models, conditions, and quality levels. Proper sorting and classification of the waste stream is a primary step in efficiently recovering and handling used products. The correct classification is particularly crucial in future electronic waste (e-waste) management sites equipped with Artificial Intelligence (AI) and robotic technologies. Robots should be enabled with proper algorithms to recognize and classify products with different features and prepare them for assembly and disassembly tasks. In this study, two categories of Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques are used to classify consumer electronics. ML models include Naïve Bayes with Bernoulli, Gaussian, Multinomial distributions, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms with four kernels of Linear, Radial Basis Function (RBF), Polynomial, and Sigmoid. While DL models include VGG16, GoogLeNet, Inception-v3, Inception-v4, and ResNet-50. The above-mentioned models are used to classify three laptop brands, including Apple, HP, and ThinkPad. First, the Edge Histogram Descriptor (EHD) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) are used to extract features as inputs to ML models for classification. DL models use laptop images without pre-processing on feature extraction. The trained models are slightly overfitting due to the limited dataset and complexity of model parameters. Despite slight overfitting, the models can identify each brand. The findings prove that DL models outperform ML. Among DL models, GoogLeNet has the highest performance in identifying the laptop brands. 
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  3. Disassembly currently is a labor-intensive process with limited automation. The main reason lies in the fact that disassembly usually has to address model variations from different brands, physical uncertainties resulting from component defects or damage during usage, and incomplete product information. To overcome these challenges and to automate the disassembly process through human-robot collaboration, this paper develops a disassembly sequence planner which distributes the disassembly task between human and robot in a human-robot collaborative setting. This sequence planner targets to address potential issues including distinctive products, variant orientations, and safety constraints of human operators. The proposed disassembly sequence planner identifies the locations and orientations of the to-be-disassembled items, determines the starting point, and generates the optimal dis-assembly sequence while complying with the disassembly rules and considering the safe constraints for human operators. This algorithm is validated by numerical and experimental tests: the robot can successfully locate and disassemble the pieces following the obtained optimal sequence, and complete the task via collaboration with the human operator without violating the constraints. 
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  4. Product disassembly is a labor-intensive process and is far from being automated. Typically, disassembly is not robust enough to handle product varieties from different shapes, models, and physical uncertainties due to component imperfections, damage throughout component usage, or insufficient product information. To overcome these difficulties and to automate the disassembly procedure through human-robot collaboration without excessive computational cost, this paper proposes a real-time receding horizon sequence planner that distributes tasks between robot and human operator while taking real-time human motion into consideration. The sequence planner aims to address several issues in the disassembly line, such as varying orientations, safety constraints of human operators, uncertainty of human operation, and the computational cost of large number of disassembly tasks. The proposed disassembly sequence planner identifies both the positions and orientations of the to-be-disassembled items, as well as the locations of human operator, and obtains an optimal disassembly sequence that follows disassembly rules and safety constraints for human operation. Experimental tests have been conducted to validate the proposed planner: the robot can locate and disassemble the components following the optimal sequence, and consider explicitly human operator’s real-time motion, and collaborate with the human operator without violating safety constraints. 
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