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  1. Abstract

    Subwavelength optical resonators with spatiotemporal control of light are essential to the miniaturization of optical devices. In this work, chemically synthesized transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) nanowires are exploited as a new type of dielectric nanoresonators to simultaneously support pronounced excitonic and Mie resonances. Strong light–matter couplings and tunable exciton polaritons in individual nanowires are demonstrated. In addition, the excitonic responses can be reversibly modulated with excellent reproducibility, offering the potential for developing tunable optical nanodevices. Being in the mobile colloidal state with highly tunable optical properties, the TMDC nanoresonators will find promising applications in integrated active optical devices, including all‐optical switches and sensors.

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  2. Abstract

    2D transition‐metal‐dichalcogenide materials, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have received immense interest owing to their remarkable structure‐endowed electronic, catalytic, and mechanical properties for applications in optoelectronics, energy storage, and wearable devices. However, 2D materials have been rarely explored in the field of micro/nanomachines, motors, and robots. Here, MoS2 with anatase TiO2 is successfully integrated into an original one‐side‐open hollow micromachine, which demonstrates increased light absorption of TiO2‐based micromachines to the visible region and the first observed motion acceleration in response to ionic media. Both experimentation and theoretical analysis suggest the unique type‐II bandgap alignment of MoS2/TiO2 heterojunction that accounts for the observed unique locomotion owing to a competing propulsion mechanism. Furthermore, by leveraging the chemical properties of MoS2/TiO2, the micromachines achieve sunlight‐powered water disinfection with 99.999% Escherichia coli lysed in an hour. This research suggests abundant opportunities offered by 2D materials in the creation of a new class of micro/nanomachines and robots.

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  3. Abstract

    Mechanically programmable, reconfigurable micro/nanoscale materials that can dynamically change their mechanical properties or behaviors, or morph into distinct assemblies or swarms in response to stimuli have greatly piqued the interest of the science community due to their unprecedented potentials in both fundamental research and technological applications. To date, a variety of designs of hard and soft materials, as well as actuation schemes based on mechanisms including chemical reactions and magnetic, acoustic, optical, and electric stimuli, have been reported. Herein, state‐of‐the‐art micro/nanostructures and operation schemes for multimodal reconfigurable micro/nanomachines and swarms, as well as potential new materials and working principles, challenges, and future perspectives are discussed.

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  4. Abstract

    To develop active nanomaterials that can instantly respond to external stimuli with designed mechanical motions is an important step towards the realization of nanorobots. Herein, we present our finding of a versatile working mechanism that allows instantaneous change of alignment direction and speed of semiconductor nanowires in an external electric field with simple visible-light exposure. The light induced alignment switch can be cycled over hundreds of times and programmed to express words in Morse code. With theoretical analysis and simulation, the working principle can be attributed to the optically tuned real-part (in-phase) electrical polarization of a semiconductor nanowire in aqueous suspension. The manipulation principle is exploited to create a new type of microscale stepper motor that can readily switch between in-phase and out-phase modes, and agilely operate independent of neighboring motors with patterned light. This work could inspire the development of new types of micro/nanomachines with individual and reconfigurable maneuverability for many applications.

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  5. Abstract

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a multifunctional material that can be used for various applications. In the single‐crystalline form, MoS2shows superior electronic properties. It is also an exceptionally useful nanomaterial in its polycrystalline form with applications in catalysis, energy storage, water treatment, and gas sensing. Here, the scalable fabrication of longitudinal MoS2nanostructures, i.e., nanoribbons, and their oxide hybrids with tunable dimensions in a rational and well‐reproducible fashion, is reported. The nanoribbons, obtained at different reaction stages, that is, MoO3, MoS2/MoO2hybrid, and MoS2, are fully characterized. The growth method presented herein has a high yield and is particularly robust. The MoS2nanoribbons can readily be removed from its substrate and dispersed in solution. It is shown that functionalized MoS2nanoribbons can be manipulated in solution and assembled in controlled patterns and directly on microelectrodes with UV‐click‐chemistry. Owing to the high chemical purity and polycrystalline nature, the MoS2nanostructures demonstrate rapid optoelectronic response to wavelengths from 450 to 750 nm, and successfully remove mercury contaminants from water. The scalable fabrication and manipulation followed by light‐directed assembly of MoS2nanoribbons, and their unique properties, will be inspiring for device fabrication and applications of the transition metal dichalcogenides.

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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 27, 2024
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