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  1. Han, Jae-Hung ; Shahab, Shima ; Yang, Jinkyu (Ed.)
    Hard real-time time-series forecasting of temporal signals has applications in the field of structural health monitoring and control. Particularly for structures experiencing high-rate dynamics, examples of such structures include hypersonic vehicles and space infrastructure. This work reports on the development of a coupled softwarehardware algorithm for deterministic and low-latency online time-series forecasting of structural vibrations that is capable of learning over nonstationary events and adjusting its forecasted signal following an event. The proposed algorithm uses an ensemble of multi-layer perceptrons trained offline on experimental and simulated data relevant to the structure. A dynamic attention layer is then used to selectively scale the outputs of the individual models to obtain a unified forecasted signal over the considered prediction horizon. The scalar values of the dynamic attention layer are continuously updated by quantifying the error between the signal’s measured value and its previously predicted value. Deterministic timing of the proposed algorithm is achieved through its deployment on a field programmable gate array. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated on experimental data taken on a test structure. Results demonstrate that a total system latency of 25.76 µs can be achieved on a Kintex-7 70T FPGA with sufficient accuracy for the considered system. 
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    Systems experiencing high-rate dynamic events, termed high-rate systems, typically undergo accelerations of amplitudes higher than 100 g-force in less than 10 ms. Examples include adaptive airbag deployment systems, hypersonic vehicles, and active blast mitigation systems. Given their critical functions, accurate and fast modeling tools are necessary for ensuring the target performance. However, the unique characteristics of these systems, which consist of (1) large uncertainties in the external loads, (2) high levels of non-stationarities and heavy disturbances, and (3) unmodeled dynamics generated from changes in system configurations, in combination with the fast-changing environments, limit the applicability of physical modeling tools. In this paper, a deep learning algorithm is used to model high-rate systems and predict their response measurements. It consists of an ensemble of short-sequence long short-term memory (LSTM) cells which are concurrently trained. To empower multi-step ahead predictions, a multi-rate sampler is designed to individually select the input space of each LSTM cell based on local dynamics extracted using the embedding theorem. The proposed algorithm is validated on experimental data obtained from a high-rate system. Results showed that the use of the multi-rate sampler yields better feature extraction from non-stationary time series compared with a more heuristic method, resulting in significant improvement in step ahead prediction accuracy and horizon. The lean and efficient architecture of the algorithm results in an average computing time of 25 μμs, which is below the maximum prediction horizon, therefore demonstrating the algorithm’s promise in real-time high-rate applications. 
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