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  1. Despite being one of the oldest data structures in computer science, hash tables continue to be the focus of a great deal of both theoretical and empirical research. A central reason for this is that many of the fundamental properties that one desires from a hash table are difficult to achieve simultaneously; thus many variants offering different trade-offs have been proposed.

    This article introduces Iceberg hashing, a hash table that simultaneously offers the strongest known guarantees on a large number of core properties. Iceberg hashing supports constant-time operations while improving on the state of the art for space efficiency, cache efficiency, and low failure probability. Iceberg hashing is also the first hash table to support a load factor of up to1 - o(1)while being stable, meaning that the position where an element is stored only ever changes when resizes occur. In fact, in the setting where keys are Θ (logn) bits, the space guarantees that Iceberg hashing offers, namely that it uses at most\(\log \binom{|U|}{n} + O(n \log \ \text{log} n)\)bits to storenitems from a universeU, matches a lower bound by Demaine et al. that applies to any stable hash table.

    Iceberg hashing introduces new general-purpose techniques for some of the most basic aspects of hash-table design. Notably, our indirection-free technique for dynamic resizing, which we call waterfall addressing, and our techniques for achieving stability and very-high probability guarantees, can be applied to any hash table that makes use of the front-yard/backyard paradigm for hash table design.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 31, 2024