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  1. Raman, B. ; Murala, S. ; Chowdhury, A. ; Dhall, A. ; Goyal, P. (Ed.)
    Using offline training schemes, researchers have tackled the event segmentation problem by providing full or weak-supervision through manually annotated labels or self-supervised epoch-based training. Most works consider videos that are at most 10’s of minutes long. We present a self-supervised perceptual prediction framework capable of temporal event segmentation by building stable representations of objects over time and demonstrate it on long videos, spanning several days at 25 FPS. The approach is deceptively simple but quite effective. We rely on predictions of high-level features computed by a standard deep learning backbone. For prediction, we use an LSTM, augmented with an attentionmore »mechanism, trained in a self-supervised manner using the prediction error. The self-learned attention maps effectively localize and track the event-related objects in each frame. The proposed approach does not require labels. It requires only a single pass through the video, with no separate training set. Given the lack of datasets of very long videos, we demonstrate our method on video from 10 d (254 h) of continuous wildlife monitoring data that we had collected with required permissions. We find that the approach is robust to various environmental conditions such as day/night conditions, rain, sharp shadows, and windy conditions. For the task of temporally locating events at the activity level, we had an 80% activity recall rate for one false activity detection every 50 min. We will make the dataset, which is the first of its kind, and the code available to the research community. Project page is available at« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 24, 2023
  2. Complex analyses involving multiple, dependent random quantities often lead to graphical models—a set of nodes denoting variables of interest, and corresponding edges denoting statistical interactions between nodes. To develop statistical analyses for graphical data, especially towards generative modeling, one needs mathematical representations and metrics for matching and comparing graphs, and subsequent tools, such as geodesics, means, and covariances. This paper utilizes a quotient structure to develop efficient algorithms for computing these quantities, leading to useful statistical tools, including principal component analysis, statistical testing, and modeling. We demonstrate the efficacy of this framework using datasets taken from several problem areas, includingmore »letters, biochemical structures, and social networks.« less
  3. Vedaldi, A. ; Bischof, H. ; Brox, T. ; Frahm, JM. (Ed.)
    The problem of action localization involves locating the action in the video, both over time and spatially in the image. The current dominant approaches use supervised learning to solve this problem. They require large amounts of annotated training data, in the form of frame-level bounding box annotations around the region of interest. In this paper, we present a new approach based on continual learning that uses feature-level predictions for self-supervision. It does not require any training annotations in terms of frame-level bounding boxes. The approach is inspired by cognitive models of visual event perception that propose a prediction-based approach tomore »event understanding. We use a stack of LSTMs coupled with a CNN encoder, along with novel attention mechanisms, to model the events in the video and use this model to predict high-level features for the future frames. The prediction errors are used to learn the parameters of the models continuously. This self-supervised framework is not complicated as other approaches but is very effective in learning robust visual representations for both labeling and localization. It should be noted that the approach outputs in a streaming fashion, requiring only a single pass through the video, making it amenable for real-time processing. We demonstrate this on three datasets - UCF Sports, JHMDB, and THUMOS’13 and show that the proposed approach outperforms weakly-supervised and unsupervised baselines and obtains competitive performance compared to fully supervised baselines. Finally, we show that the proposed framework can generalize to egocentric videos and achieve state-of-the-art results on the unsupervised gaze prediction task.« less