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  1. Abstract Realization of practical sodium metal batteries (SMBs) is hindered due to lack of compatible electrolyte components, dendrite propagation, and poor understanding of anodic interphasial chemistries. Chemically robust liquid electrolytes that facilitate both favorable sodium metal deposition and a stable solid‐electrolyte interphase (SEI) are ideal to enable sodium metal and anode‐free cells. Herein we present advanced characterization of a novel fluorine‐free electrolyte utilizing the [HCB 11 H 11 ] 1− anion. Symmetrical Na cells operated with this electrolyte exhibit a remarkably low overpotential of 0.032 V at a current density of 2.0 mA cm −2 and a high coulombic efficiency of 99.5 % in half‐cell configurations. Surface characterization of electrodes post‐operation reveals the absence of dendritic sodium nucleation and a surprisingly stable fluorine‐free SEI. Furthermore, weak ion‐pairing is identified as key towards the successful development of fluorine‐free sodium electrolytes. 
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  2. C–H functionalization of undecahalogenated carborane anions, [HCB 11 X 11 − ] (X = Cl, Br, I), is performed with Cs 2 CO 3 in acetonitrile. We show that the requisite Cl, Br and I carborane dianions can all be efficiently accessed with Cs 2 CO 3 . The utilization of Cs 2 CO 3 eliminates the complications associated with competing E2 elimination reactions providing an efficient, more functional group tolerant, and broader scope than previously reported. The ensuing functionalized cages provide potential synthons for constructing advanced materials and other molecular architectures for various applications. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    This minireview provides a concise overview on the development of electrolytes for rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries. It elucidates the intrinsic driving force of the evolution from Grignard-based electrolytes to electrolytes based on simple Mg salts. Additional discussion includes the key electrochemical processes at the interfaces in Mg electrolytes, with a focus on unaddressed issues and future research directions. 
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