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  1. When data is of an extraordinarily large size or physically stored in different locations, the distributed nearest neighbor (NN) classifier is an attractive tool for classification. We propose a novel distributed adaptive NN classifier for which the number of nearest neighbors is a tuning parameter stochastically chosen by a data-driven criterion. An early stopping rule is proposed when searching for the optimal tuning parameter, which not only speeds up the computation but also improves the finite sample performance of the proposed algorithm. Convergence rate of excess risk of the distributed adaptive NN classifier is investigated under various sub-sample size compositions. In particular, we show that when the sub-sample sizes are sufficiently large, the proposed classifier achieves the nearly optimal convergence rate. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through simulation studies as well as an empirical application to a real-world dataset. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 3, 2024
  2. Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and projected stochastic gradient descent (PSGD) are scalable algorithms to compute model parameters in unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. In comparison with SGD, PSGD forces its iterative values into the constrained parameter space via projection. From a statistical point of view, this paper studies the limiting distribution of PSGD-based estimate when the true parameters satisfy some linear-equality constraints. Our theoretical findings reveal the role of projection played in the uncertainty of the PSGD-based estimate. As a byproduct, we propose an online hypothesis testing procedure to test the linear-equality constraints. Simulation studies on synthetic data and an application to a real-world dataset confirm our theory. 
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