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  1. Abstract

    The proteins that make up the actin cytoskeleton can self-assemble into a variety of structures. In vitro experiments and coarse-grained simulations have shown that the actin crosslinking proteins α-actinin and fascin segregate into distinct domains in single actin bundles with a molecular size-dependent competition-based mechanism. Here, by encapsulating actin, α-actinin, and fascin in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), we show that physical confinement can cause these proteins to form much more complex structures, including rings and asters at GUV peripheries and centers; the prevalence of different structures depends on GUV size. Strikingly, we found that α-actinin and fascin self-sort intomore »separate domains in the aster structures with actin bundles whose apparent stiffness depends on the ratio of the relative concentrations of α-actinin and fascin. The observed boundary-imposed effect on protein sorting may be a general mechanism for creating emergent structures in biopolymer networks with multiple crosslinkers.

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  6. Strong electronic coupling occurs in ordered nanocrystal superlattices assembled through short-range attractive potentials.
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  7. The Stokes equation describes the motion of fluids when inertial forces are negligible compared with viscous forces. In this article, we explore the consequence of parity-violating and non-dissipative (i.e. odd) viscosities on Stokes flows in three dimensions. Parity-violating viscosities are coefficients of the viscosity tensor that are not invariant under mirror reflections of space, while odd viscosities are those which do not contribute to dissipation of mechanical energy. These viscosities can occur in systems ranging from synthetic and biological active fluids to magnetized and rotating fluids. We first systematically enumerate all possible parity-violating viscosities compatible with cylindrical symmetry, highlighting theirmore »connection to potential microscopic realizations. Then, using a combination of analytical and numerical methods, we analyse the effects of parity-violating viscosities on the Stokeslet solution, on the flow past a sphere or a bubble and on many-particle sedimentation. In all the cases that we analyse, parity-violating viscosities give rise to an azimuthal flow even when the driving force is parallel to the axis of cylindrical symmetry. For a few sedimenting particles, the azimuthal flow bends the trajectories compared with a traditional Stokes flow. For a cloud of particles, the azimuthal flow impedes the transformation of the spherical cloud into a torus and the subsequent breakup into smaller parts that would otherwise occur. The presence of azimuthal flows in cylindrically symmetric systems (sphere, bubble, cloud of particles) can serve as a probe for parity-violating viscosities in experimental systems.« less
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