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  1. Binary neural network (BNN) delivers increased compute intensity and reduces memory/data requirements for computation. Scalable BNN enables inference in a limited time due to different constraints. This paper explores the application of Scalable BNN in oblivious inference, a service provided by a server to mistrusting clients. Using this service, a client can obtain the inference result on his/her data by a trained model held by the server without disclosing the data or learning the model parameters. Two contributions of this paper are: 1) we devise lightweight cryptographic protocols explicitly designed to exploit the unique characteristics of BNNs. 2) we present an advanced dynamic exploration of the runtime-accuracy tradeoff of scalable BNNs in a single-shot training process. While previous works trained multiple BNNs with different computational complexities (which is cumbersome due to the slow convergence of BNNs), we train a single BNN that can perform inference under various computational budgets. Compared to CryptFlow2, the state-of-the-art technique in the oblivious inference of non-binary DNNs, our approach reaches 3 × faster inference while keeping the same accuracy. Compared to XONN, the state-of-the-art technique in the oblivious inference of binary networks, we achieve 2 × to 12 × faster inference while obtaining higher accuracy. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 5, 2024
  2. Recent advances in model piracy have uncovered a new security hole for malicious attacks endangering the Intellectual Property (IP) of Deep Learning (DL) systems. This manuscript features our research titled “DeepAttest: An End-toEnd Attestation Framework for Deep Neural Networks” [1] that is selected for the 2021 Top Picks in hardware and embedded security. DeepAttest is the first end-to-end framework that achieves reliable and efficient IP protection of DL devices with hardware-bounded usage control. We leverage device-specific model fingerprinting and Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) to ensure that only DL models with the device-specific fingerprint can run inference on protected hardware 
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  3. This paper proposes AdaTest, a novel adaptive test pattern generation framework for efficient and reliable Hardware Trojan (HT) detection. HT is a backdoor attack that tampers with the design of victim integrated circuits (ICs). AdaTest improves the existing HT detection techniques in terms of scalability and accuracy of detecting smaller Trojans in the presence of noise and variations. To achieve high trigger coverage, AdaTest leverages Reinforcement Learning (RL) to produce a diverse set of test inputs. Particularly, we progressively generate test vectors with high ‘reward’ values in an iterative manner. In each iteration, the test set is evaluated and adaptively expanded as needed. Furthermore, AdaTest integrates adaptive sampling to prioritize test samples that provide more information for HT detection, thus reducing the number of samples while improving the samples’ quality for faster exploration. We develop AdaTest with a Software/Hardware co-design principle and provide an optimized on-chip architecture solution. AdaTest’s architecture minimizes the hardware overhead in two ways: (i) Deploying circuit emulation on programmable hardware to accelerate reward evaluation of the test input; (ii) Pipelining each computation stage in AdaTest by automatically constructing auxiliary circuit for test input generation, reward evaluation, and adaptive sampling. We evaluate AdaTest’s performance on various HT benchmarks and compare it with two prior works that use logic testing for HT detection. Experimental results show that AdaTest engenders up to two orders of test generation speedup and two orders of test set size reduction compared to the prior works while achieving the same level or higher Trojan detection rate. 
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  4. We propose AccHashtag, the first framework for high-accuracy detection of fault-injection attacks on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) with provable bounds on detection performance. Recent literature in fault-injection attacks shows the severe DNN accuracy degradation caused by bit flips. In this scenario, the attacker changes a few DNN weight bits during execution by injecting faults to the dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). To detect bit flips, AccHashtag extracts a unique signature from the benign DNN prior to deployment. The signature is used to validate the model’s integrity and verify the inference output on the fly. We propose a novel sensitivity analysis that identifies the most vulnerable DNN layers to the fault-injection attack. The DNN signature is constructed by encoding the weights in vulnerable layers using a low-collision hash function. During DNN inference, new hashes are extracted from the target layers and compared against the ground-truth signatures. AccHashtag incorporates a lightweight methodology that allows for real-time fault detection on embedded platforms. We devise a specialized compute core for AccHashtag on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to facilitate online hash generation in parallel to DNN execution. Extensive evaluations with the state-of-the-art bit-flip attack on various DNNs demonstrate the competitive advantage of AccHashtag in terms of both attack detection and execution overhead. 
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  5. We propose SenseHash, a novel design for the lightweight in-hardware mystification of the sensed data at the origin. The framework aims to ensure the privacy of sensitive sensor values while preserving their utility. The sensors are assumed to interface to various (potentially malicious) communication and computing components in the Internet-of-things (IoT) and other emerging pervasive computing scenarios. The primary security primitives of our work are Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) combined with Differential Privacy (DP) and secure construction of LSH. Our construction allows (i) sub-linear search in sensor readings while ensuring their security against triangulation attack, and (ii) differentially private statistics of the readings. SenseHash includes hardware architecture as well as accompanying protocols to efficiently utilize the secure readings in practical scenarios. Alongside these scenarios, we present an automated workflow to generalize the application of the mystified readings. Proof-of-concept FPGA implementation of the system demonstrates its practicability and low overhead in terms of hardware resources, energy consumption, and protocol execution time. 
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