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  1. Recent advancements in Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have enabled widespread deployment in multiple security-sensitive domains. The need for resource-intensive training and the use of valuable domain-specific training data have made these models the top intellectual property (IP) for model owners. One of the major threats to DNN privacy is model extraction attacks where adversaries attempt to steal sensitive information in DNN models. In this work, we propose an advanced model extraction framework DeepSteal that steals DNN weights remotely for the first time with the aid of a memory side-channel attack. Our proposed DeepSteal comprises two key stages. Firstly, we develop a new weight bit information extraction method, called HammerLeak, through adopting the rowhammer-based fault technique as the information leakage vector. HammerLeak leverages several novel system-level techniques tailored for DNN applications to enable fast and efficient weight stealing. Secondly, we propose a novel substitute model training algorithm with Mean Clustering weight penalty, which leverages the partial leaked bit information effectively and generates a substitute prototype of the target victim model. We evaluate the proposed model extraction framework on three popular image datasets (e.g., CIFAR-10/100/GTSRB) and four DNN architectures (e.g., ResNet-18/34/Wide-ResNetNGG-11). The extracted substitute model has successfully achieved more than 90% testmore »accuracy on deep residual networks for the CIFAR-10 dataset. Moreover, our extracted substitute model could also generate effective adversarial input samples to fool the victim model. Notably, it achieves similar performance (i.e., ~1-2% test accuracy under attack) as white-box adversarial input attack (e.g., PGD/Trades).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 22, 2023
  2. Traditional Deep Neural Network (DNN) security is mostly related to the well-known adversarial input example attack.Recently, another dimension of adversarial attack, namely, attack on DNN weight parameters, has been shown to be very powerful. Asa representative one, the Bit-Flip based adversarial weight Attack (BFA) injects an extremely small amount of faults into weight parameters to hijack the executing DNN function. Prior works of BFA focus on un-targeted attacks that can hack all inputs into a random output class by flipping a very small number of weight bits stored in computer memory. This paper proposes the first work oftargetedBFA based (T-BFA) adversarial weight attack on DNNs, which can intentionally mislead selected inputs to a target output class. The objective is achieved by identifying the weight bits that are highly associated with classification of a targeted output through a class-dependent weight bit searching algorithm. Our proposed T-BFA performance is successfully demonstrated on multiple DNN architectures for image classification tasks. For example, by merely flipping 27 out of 88 million weight bits of ResNet-18, our T-BFA can misclassify all the images from Hen class into Goose class (i.e., 100% attack success rate) in ImageNet dataset, while maintaining 59.35% validation accuracy.
  3. The wide deployment of Deep Neural Networks (DNN) in high-performance cloud computing platforms brought to light multi-tenant cloud field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) as a popular choice of accelerator to boost performance due to its hardware reprogramming flexibility. Such a multi-tenant FPGA setup for DNN acceleration potentially exposes DNN interference tasks under severe threat from malicious users. This work, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to explore DNN model vulnerabilities in multi-tenant FPGAs. We propose a novel adversarial attack framework: Deep-Dup, in which the adversarial tenant can inject adversarial faults to the DNN model in the victim tenant of FPGA. Specifically, she can aggressively overload the shared power distribution system of FPGA with malicious power-plundering circuits, achieving adversarial weight duplication (AWD) hardware attack that duplicates certain DNN weight packages during data transmission between off-chip memory and on-chip buffer, to hijack the DNN function of the victim tenant. Further, to identify the most vulnerable DNN weight packages for a given malicious objective, we propose a generic vulnerable weight package searching algorithm, called Progressive Differential Evolution Search (P-DES), which is, for the first time, adaptive to both deep learning white-box and black-box attack models. The proposed Deep-Dup is experimentally validatedmore »in a developed multi-tenant FPGA prototype, for two popular deep learning applications, i.e., Object Detection and Image Classification. Successful attacks are demonstrated in six popular DNN architectures (e.g., YOLOv2, ResNet-50, MobileNet, etc.) on three datasets (COCO, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet).« less
  4. Deep Neural Networks (DNN) could forget the knowledge about earlier tasks when learning new tasks, and this is known as catastrophic forgetting. To learn new task without forgetting, recently, the mask-based learning method (e.g. piggyback ) is proposed to address these issues by learning only a binary element-wise mask, while keeping the backbone model fixed. However, the binary mask has limited modeling capacity for new tasks. A more recent work proposes a compress-grow-based method (CPG) to achieve better accuracy for new tasks by partially training backbone model, but with order-higher training cost, which makes it infeasible to be deployed into popular state-of-the-art edge-/mobile-learning. The primary goal of this work is to simultaneously achieve fast and high-accuracy multi-task adaption in a continual learning setting. Thus motivated, we propose a new training method called Kernel-wise Soft Mask (KSM), which learns a kernel-wise hybrid binary and real-value soft mask for each task. Such a soft mask can be viewed as a superposition of a binary mask and a properly scaled real-value tensor, which offers a richer representation capability without low-level kernel support to meet the objective of low hardware overhead. We validate KSM on multiple benchmark datasets against recent state-of-the-art methods (e.g. Piggyback,more »Packnet, CPG, etc.), which shows good improvement in both accuracy and training cost.« less
  5. To deploy powerful deep neural network (DNN) into smart, but resource limited IoT devices, many prior works have been proposed to compress DNN to reduce the network size and computation complexity with negligible accuracy degradation, such as weight quantization, network pruning, convolution decomposition, etc. However, by utilizing conventional DNN compression methods, a smaller, but fixed, network is generated from a relative large background model to achieve resource limited hardware acceleration. However, such optimization lacks the ability to adjust its structure in real-time to adapt for a dynamic computing hardware resource allocation and workloads. In this paper, we mainly review our two prior works [13], [15] to tackle this challenge, discussing how to construct a dynamic DNN by means of either uniform or non-uniform sub-nets generation methods. Moreover, to generate multiple non-uniform sub-nets, [15] needs to fully retrain the background model for each sub-net individually, named as multi-path method. To reduce the training cost, in this work, we further propose a single-path sub-nets generation method that can sample multiple sub-nets in different epochs within one training round. The constructed dynamic DNN, consisting of multiple sub-nets, provides the ability to run-time trade-off the inference accuracy and latency according to hardware resources andmore »environment requirements. In the end, we study the the dynamic DNNs with different sub-nets generation methods on both CIFAR-10 and ImageNet dataset. We also present the run-time tuning of accuracy and latency on both GPU and CPU.« less
  6. Security of machine learning is increasingly becoming a major concern due to the ubiquitous deployment of deep learning in many security-sensitive domains. Many prior studies have shown external attacks such as adversarial examples that tamper the integrity of DNNs using maliciously crafted inputs. However, the security implication of internal threats (i.e., hardware vulnerabilities) to DNN models has not yet been well understood. In this paper, we demonstrate the first hardware-based attack on quantized deep neural networks–DeepHammer–that deterministically induces bit flips in model weights to compromise DNN inference by exploiting the rowhammer vulnerability. DeepHammer performs an aggressive bit search in the DNN model to identify the most vulnerable weight bits that are flippable under system constraints. To trigger deterministic bit flips across multiple pages within a reasonable amount of time, we develop novel system-level techniques that enable fast deployment of victim pages, memory-efficient rowhammering and precise flipping of targeted bits. DeepHammer can deliberately degrade the inference accuracy of the victim DNN system to a level that is only as good as random guess, thus completely depleting the intelligence of targeted DNN systems. We systematically demonstrate our attacks on real systems against 11 DNN architectures with 4 datasets corresponding to different applicationmore »domains. Our evaluation shows that DeepHammer is able to successfully tamper DNN inference behavior at run-time within a few minutes. We further discuss several mitigation techniques from both algorithm and system levels to protect DNNs against such attacks. Our work highlights the need to incorporate security mechanisms in future deep learning systems to enhance the robustness against hardware-based deterministic fault injections.« less
  7. Security of modern Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) is under severe scrutiny as the deployment of these models become widespread in many intelligence-based applications. Most recently, DNNs are attacked through Trojan which can effectively infect the model during the training phase and get activated only through specific input patterns (i.e, trigger) during inference. In this work, for the first time, we propose a novel Targeted Bit Trojan(TBT) method, which can insert a targeted neural Trojan into a DNN through bit-flip attack. Our algorithm efficiently generates a trigger specifically designed to locate certain vulnerable bits of DNN weights stored in main memory (i.e., DRAM). The objective is that once the attacker flips these vulnerable bits, the network still operates with normal inference accuracy with benign input. However, when the attacker activates the trigger by embedding it with any input, the network is forced to classify all inputs to a certain target class. We demonstrate that flipping only several vulnerable bits identified by our method, using available bit-flip techniques (i.e, row-hammer), can transform a fully functional DNN model into a Trojan-infected model. We perform extensive experiments of CIFAR-10, SVHN and ImageNet datasets on both VGG-16 and Resnet-18 architectures. Our proposed TBT could classifymore »92 of test images to a target class with as little as 84 bit-flips out of 88 million weight bits on Resnet-18 for CIFAR10 dataset.« less
  8. Recently, a new paradigm of the adversarial attack on the quantized neural network weights has attracted great attention, namely, the Bit-Flip based adversarial weight attack, aka. Bit-Flip Attack (BFA). BFA has shown extraordinary attacking ability, where the adversary can malfunction a quantized Deep Neural Network (DNN) as a random guess, through malicious bit-flips on a small set of vulnerable weight bits (e.g., 13 out of 93 millions bits of 8-bit quantized ResNet-18). However, there are no effective defensive methods to enhance the fault-tolerance capability of DNN against such BFA. In this work, we conduct comprehensive investigations on BFA and propose to leverage binarization-aware training and its relaxation - piece-wise clustering as simple and effective countermeasures to BFA. The experiments show that, for BFA to achieve the identical prediction accuracy degradation (e.g., below 11% on CIFAR-10), it requires 19.3× and 480.1× more effective malicious bit-flips on ResNet-20 and VGG-11 respectively, compared to defend-free counterparts.