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  1. Deep neural networks, including the Transformer architecture, have achieved remarkable performance in various time series tasks. However, their effectiveness in handling clinical time series data is hindered by specific challenges: 1) Sparse event sequences collected asynchronously with multivariate time series, and 2) Limited availability of labeled data. To address these challenges, we propose Our code is available at https://github.com/SigmaTsing/TransEHR.git . , a self-supervised Transformer model designed to encode multi-sourced asynchronous sequential data, such as structured Electronic Health Records (EHRs), efficiently. We introduce three pretext tasks for pre-training the Transformer model, utilizing large amounts of unlabeled structured EHR data, followed by fine-tuning on downstream prediction tasks using the limited labeled data. Through extensive experiments on three real-world health datasets, we demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on benchmark clinical tasks, including in-hospital mortality classification, phenotyping, and length-of-stay prediction. Our findings highlight the efficacy of in effectively addressing the challenges associated with clinical time series data, thus contributing to advancements in healthcare analytics. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 10, 2024
  2. Tiny machine learning (TinyML) applications increasingly operate in dynamically changing deployment scenarios, requiring optimization for both accuracy and latency. Existing methods mainly target a single point in the accuracy/latency tradeoff space, which is insufficient as no single static point can be optimal under variable conditions. We draw on a recently proposed weight-shared SuperNet mechanism to enable serving a stream of queries that activates different SubNets within a SuperNet. This creates an opportunity to exploit the inherent temporal locality of different queries that use the same SuperNet. We propose a hardware–software co-design called SUSHI that introduces a novel SubGraph Stationary optimization. SUSHI consists of a novel field-programmable gate array implementation and a software scheduler that controls which SubNets to serve and which SubGraph to cache in real time. SUSHI yields up to a 32% improvement in latency, 0.98% increase in served accuracy, and achieves up to 78.7% off-chip energy saved across several neural network architectures. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. Song, Dawn ; Carbin, Michael ; Chen, T (Ed.)
  4. There is a growing rise of applications that need to support a library of models with diverse latency-accuracy trade-offs on a Pareto frontier, especially in the health-care domain. This work presents an end-to-end system for training and serving weight-sharing models. On the training end, we leverage recent research in creating a family of models on the latency- accuracy Pareto frontier that share weights, reducing the total number of unique parameters. On the serving (inference end), we propose a novel accelerator FastSwitch that extracts weight reuse across different models, thereby providing fast real-time switching between different models. 
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  5. Poole, Steve ; Hernandez, Oscar ; Baker, Matthew ; Curtis, Tony (Ed.)
    SHMEM-ML is a domain specific library for distributed array computations and machine learning model training & inference. Like other projects at the intersection of machine learning and HPC (e.g. dask, Arkouda, Legate Numpy), SHMEM-ML aims to leverage the performance of the HPC software stack to accelerate machine learning workflows. However, it differs in a number of ways. First, SHMEM-ML targets the full machine learning workflow, not just model training. It supports a general purpose nd-array abstraction commonly used in Python machine learning applications, and efficiently distributes transformation and manipulation of this ndarray across the full system. Second, SHMEM-ML uses OpenSHMEM as its underlying communication layer, enabling high performance networking across hundreds or thousands of distributed processes. While most past work in high performance machine learning has leveraged HPC message passing communication models as a way to efficiently exchange model gradient updates, SHMEM-ML’s focus on the full machine learning lifecycle means that a more flexible and adaptable communication model is needed to support both fine and coarse grain communication. Third, SHMEM-ML works to interoperate with the broader Python machine learning software ecosystem. While some frameworks aim to rebuild that ecosystem from scratch on top of the HPC software stack, SHMEM-ML is built on top of Apache Arrow, an in-memory standard for data formatting and data exchange between libraries. This enables SHMEM-ML to share data with other libraries without creating copies of data. This paper describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of SHMEM-ML – demonstrating a general purpose system for data transformation and manipulation while achieving up to a 38× speedup in distributed training performance relative to the industry standard Horovod framework without a regression in model metrics. 
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  6. Koyejo, S. ; Mohamed, S. ; Agarwal, A. ; Belgrave, D. ; Cho, K. ; Oh, A. (Ed.)
    Machine Learning (ML) research has focused on maximizing the accuracy of predictive tasks. ML models, however, are increasingly more complex, resource intensive, and costlier to deploy in resource-constrained environments. These issues are exacerbated for prediction tasks with sequential classification on progressively transitioned stages with “happens-before” relation between them.We argue that it is possible to “unfold” a monolithic single multi-class classifier, typically trained for all stages using all data, into a series of single-stage classifiers. Each single- stage classifier can be cascaded gradually from cheaper to more expensive binary classifiers that are trained using only the necessary data modalities or features required for that stage. UnfoldML is a cost-aware and uncertainty-based dynamic 2D prediction pipeline for multi-stage classification that enables (1) navigation of the accuracy/cost tradeoff space, (2) reducing the spatio-temporal cost of inference by orders of magnitude, and (3) early prediction on proceeding stages. UnfoldML achieves orders of magnitude better cost in clinical settings, while detecting multi- stage disease development in real time. It achieves within 0.1% accuracy from the highest-performing multi-class baseline, while saving close to 20X on spatio- temporal cost of inference and earlier (3.5hrs) disease onset prediction. We also show that UnfoldML generalizes to image classification, where it can predict different level of labels (from coarse to fine) given different level of abstractions of a image, saving close to 5X cost with as little as 0.4% accuracy reduction. 
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