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  1. IMECE2022-88301 Additive manufacturing (AM) is transforming industrial production. AM can produce parts with complex geometries and functionality. However, one of the biggest challenges in the AM world is limited material options. The purpose of this research is to develop new material mixtures and determine their mechanical properties for use at the MSOE Rapid Prototyping Center and provide valuable insight into beta materials for use in AM industry. Elastomeric polyurethane (EPU 40) and Rigid polyurethane (RPU 70), resins developed by Carbon3D, are employed for this research. Initially, EPU 40 (100%) and RPU 70 (100%) were used to print tensile and hardness test specimens so that their mechanical properties could be compared to the standard values presented by Carbon3D and used as benchmarks for newly developed material. Mixtures of the two materials, EPU 40 and RPU 70, in multiple ratios were then created and used to print tensile and hardness test specimens. Data collected from tensile and hardness tests show that EPU 40 and RPU 70 can be combined in various ratios to obtain material properties that lie between the two individual components. In addition to developing these new materials, the effect of printing orientation on mechanical properties was also studied inmore »this paper.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  2. IMECE2022-88299 Midwest Engineered Systems Inc. has created a novel laser wire metal deposition process, ADDere manufacturing. ADDere has a much higher deposition rate than powder bed fusion, making it ideal for large components. In this project, the mechanical properties of ADDere printed materials were tested and compared to typical values found in ASM publications to show the quality of materials manufactured by the ADDere printing process. A detailed material analysis was performed on samples made from Ti-6Al-4V and 17-4 PH stainless steel. This work builds upon an earlier study of samples made from 17-4 PH that were produced using a single direction pattern. In this project, the 17-4 PH samples were printed in a cross hatched pattern, and testing results were compared to existing data from single direction samples of the previous research. The Ti-6Al-4V samples were created in two builds. One using the uni-directional method and the other with the crossed pattern. Testing specimens were removed from the samples using a water jet cutter and further machined into ASTM tensile bars and metallurgic mounts to perform a thorough material evaluation. The Ti-6Al-4V sample met the expected values in the ASM literature, and the cross hatched 17-4 PH exhibited amore »higher hardness and better microstructure than the single direction samples from the previous work. It was also observed that when the Ti64 samples were manufactured in the cross hatched pattern, the properties indicated slight improvement and more homogeneity than those printed in single layer direction. The obtained results indicate that ADDere’s printing process can produce highly refined materials that are customizable with their expected uses. This work showcases an excellent industry collaboration of an undergraduate research experience.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  3. A major challenge in tissue engineering is the formation of vasculature in tissue and organs. Recent studies have shown that positively charged microspheres promote vascularization, while also supporting the controlled release of bioactive molecules. This study investigated the development of gelatin-coated pectin microspheres for incorporation into a novel bioink. Electrospray was used to produce the microspheres. The process was optimized using Design-Expert® software. Microspheres underwent gelatin coating and EDC catalysis modifications. The results showed that the concentration of pectin solution impacted roundness and uniformity primarily, while flow rate affected size most significantly. The optimal gelatin concentration for microsphere coating was determined to be 0.75%, and gelatin coating led to a positively charged surface. When incorporated into bioink, the microspheres did not significantly alter viscosity, and they distributed evenly in bioink. These microspheres show great promise for incorporation into bioink for tissue engineering applications.