The rapid population growth and unplanned urbanization within Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) have induced land use and land cover (LULC) changes that have exacerbated problems of air pollution and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. These issues, as well as potential mitigations and possible counteractions, are currently under investigation by numerous research communities, resulting in various solutions being put forward including the creation of Urban Green Spaces (UGS). Establishing UGS would increase carbon dioxide extraction, minimizing photochemical ozone formation and liberation, while simultaneously cooling the microclimate of an area such as KMC. Optimized implementation of UGS throughout KMC requires an understanding of and prioritization of locations based on degraded air quality and the UHI effect. Unfortunately, such studies in these areas appear to be severely lacking, which has acted as a catalyst for this study. This research includes prioritization on two different spatial units—(i) at the administrative ward level and (ii) 0.0025° fishnet level. The result identifies the high-need locations where UGS establishment is recommended to mitigate air pollution and the UHI effect. Information obtained also heightened the existing UGS’s current sparsity and deplorable conditions. Findings from this study indicate that the utilization of rooftops are potential locations for new UGS, and enhancement of the existing UGS would prove to be an efficient use of currently underutilized spaces.
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In this paper, we propose MetaMobi, a novel spatio-temporal multi-dots connectivity-aware modeling and Meta model update approach for crowd Mobility learning. MetaMobi analyzes real-world Wi-Fi association data collected from our campus wireless infrastructure, with the goal towards enabling a smart connected campus. Specifically, MetaMobi aims at addressing the following two major challenges with existing crowd mobility sensing system designs: (a) how to handle the spatially, temporally, and contextually varying features in large-scale human crowd mobility distributions; and (b) how to adapt to the impacts of such crowd mobility patterns as well as the dynamic changes in crowd sensing infrastructures. To handle the first challenge, we design a novel multi-dots connectivity-aware learning approach, which jointly learns the crowd flow time series of multiple buildings with fusion of spatial graph connectivities and temporal attention mechanisms. Furthermore, to overcome the adaptivity issues due to changes in the crowd sensing infrastructures (e.g., installation of new ac- cess points), we further design a novel meta model update approach with Bernoulli dropout, which mitigates the over- fitting behaviors of the model given few-shot distributions of new crowd mobility datasets. Extensive experimental evaluations based on the real-world campus wireless dataset (including over 76 million Wi-Fi association and disassociation records) demonstrate the accuracy, effectiveness, and adaptivity of MetaMobi in forecasting the campus crowd flows, with 30% higher accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art approaches.more » « less
We are currently living in the era of big data. The volume of collected or archived geospatial data for land use and land cover (LULC) mapping including remotely sensed satellite imagery and auxiliary geospatial datasets is increasing. Innovative machine learning, deep learning algorithms, and cutting-edge cloud computing have also recently been developed. While new opportunities are provided by these geospatial big data and advanced computer technologies for LULC mapping, challenges also emerge for LULC mapping from using these geospatial big data. This article summarizes the review studies and research progress in remote sensing, machine learning, deep learning, and geospatial big data for LULC mapping since 2015. We identified the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of using geospatial big data for LULC mapping. More research needs to be performed for improved LULC mapping at large scales.
Crowd mobility prediction, in particular, forecasting flows at and transitions across different locations, is essential for crowd analytics and management in spacious environments featured with large gathering. We propose GAEFT, a novel crowd mobility analytics system based on the multi-task graph attention neural network to forecast crowd flows (inflows/outflows) and transitions. Specifically, we leverage the collective and sanitized campus Wi-Fi association data provided by our university information technology service and conduct a relatable case study. Our comprehensive data analysis reveals the important challenges of sparsity and skewness, as well as the complex spatio-temporal variations within the crowd mobility data. Therefore, we design a novel spatio-temporal clustering method to group Wi-Fi access points (APs) with similar transition features, and obtain more regular mobility features for model inputs. We then propose an attention-based graph embedding design to capture the correlations among the crowd flows and transitions, and jointly predict the AP-level flows as well as transitions across buildings and clusters through a multi-task formulation. Extensive experimental studies using more than 28 million association records collected during 2020-2021 academic year validate the excellent accuracy of GAEFT in forecasting dynamic and complex crowd mobility.more » « less