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  1. A laser-driven shock propagating through an isolated particle embedded in a plastic (CH) target was studied using the radiation-hydrodynamic code FLASH. Preliminary simulations using IONMIX equations of state (EOS) showed significant differences in the shock Hugoniot of aluminum compared to experimental data in the low-pressure regime [ O(10) GPa], resulting in higher streamwise compression and deformation of an aluminum particle. Hence, a simple modification to the ideal gas EOS was developed and employed to describe the target materials and examine the particle dynamics. The evolution of the pressure field demonstrated a complex wave interaction, resulting in a highly unsteady particle drag which featured two drag minima due to shock focusing at the rear end of the particle and rarefaction stretching due to laser shut-off. Although ∼30% lateral expansion and ∼25% streamwise compression were observed, the aluminum particle maintained considerable integrity without significant distortion. Additional simulations examined the particle response for a range of particle densities, sizes, and acoustic impedances. The results revealed that lighter particles such as aluminum gained significant momentum, reaching up to ∼96% of the shocked CH's speed, compared to ∼29% for the heavier tungsten particles. Despite the differences seen in the early stage of shock interaction, particlesmore »with varying acoustic impedances ultimately reached the same peak velocity. This identified particle-to-host density ratio is an important factor in determining the inviscid terminal velocity of the particle. In addition, the modified EOS model presented in this study could be used to approximate solid materials in hydrocodes that lack material strength models.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023