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Serverless computing enables a new way of building and scaling cloud applications by allowing developers to write fine-grained serverless or cloud functions. The execution duration of a cloud function is typically short---ranging from a few milliseconds to hundreds of seconds. However, due to resource contentions caused by public clouds' deep consolidation, the function execution duration may get significantly prolonged and fail to accurately account for the function's true resource usage. We observe that the function duration can be highly unpredictable with huge amplification of more than 50× for an open-source FaaS platform (OpenLambda). Our experiments show that the OS scheduling policy of cloud functions' host server can have a crucial impact on performance. The default Linux scheduler, CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler), being oblivious to workloads, frequently context-switches short functions, causing a turnaround time that is much longer than their service time. We propose SFS (Smart Function Scheduler), which works entirely in the user space and carefully orchestrates existing Linux FIFO and CFS schedulers to approximate Shortest Remaining Time First (SRTF). SFS uses two-level scheduling that seamlessly combines a new FILTER policy with Linux CFS, to trade off increased duration of long functions for significant performance improvement for short functions. Wemore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 13, 2023
Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
A review of machine learning techniques for process and performance optimization in laser beam powder bed fusion additive manufacturingLaser beam powder bed fusion (LB-PBF) is a widely-used metal additive manufacturing process due to its high potential for fabrication flexibility and quality. Its process and performance optimization are key to improving product quality and promote further adoption of LB-PBF. In this article, the state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) applications for process and performance optimization in LB-PBF are reviewed. In these applications, ML is used to model the process-structure–property relationships in a data-driven way and optimize process parameters for high-quality fabrication. We review these applications in terms of their modeled relationships by ML (e.g., process—structure, process—property, or structure—property) and categorize the ML algorithms into interpretable ML, conventional ML, and deep ML according to interpretability and accuracy. This way may be particularly useful for practitioners as a comprehensive reference for selecting the ML algorithms according to the particular needs. It is observed that of the three types of ML above, conventional ML has been applied in process and performance optimization the most due to its balanced performance in terms of model accuracy and interpretability. To explore the power of ML in discovering new knowledge and insights, interpretation with additional steps is often needed for complex models arising from conventional ML and deepmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 15, 2023
FedAT: A High-Performance and Communication-Efficient Federated Learning System with Asynchronous TiersFederated learning (FL) involves training a model over massive distributed devices, while keeping the training data localized and private. This form of collaborative learning exposes new tradeoffs among model convergence speed, model accuracy, balance across clients, and communication cost, with new challenges including: (1) straggler problem—where clients lag due to data or (computing and network) resource heterogeneity, and (2) communication bottleneck—where a large number of clients communicate their local updates to a central server and bottleneck the server. Many existing FL methods focus on optimizing along only one single dimension of the tradeoff space. Existing solutions use asynchronous model updating or tiering-based, synchronous mechanisms to tackle the straggler problem. However, asynchronous methods can easily create a communication bottleneck, while tiering may introduce biases that favor faster tiers with shorter response latencies. To address these issues, we present FedAT, a novel Federated learning system with Asynchronous Tiers under Non-i.i.d. training data. FedAT synergistically combines synchronous, intra-tier training and asynchronous, cross-tier training. By bridging the synchronous and asynchronous training through tiering, FedAT minimizes the straggler effect with improved convergence speed and test accuracy. FedAT uses a straggler-aware, weighted aggregation heuristic to steer and balance the training across clients for further accuracy improvement.more »