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  1. Scholkopf, Bernhard ; Uhler, Caroline ; Zhang, Kun (Ed.)
    In order to test if a treatment is perceptibly different from a placebo in a randomized experiment with covariates, classical nonparametric tests based on ranks of observations/residuals have been employed (eg: by Rosenbaum), with finite-sample valid inference enabled via permutations. This paper proposes a different principle on which to base inference: if — with access to all covariates and outcomes, but without access to any treatment assignments — one can form a ranking of the subjects that is sufficiently nonrandom (eg: mostly treated followed by mostly control), then we can confidently conclude that there must be a treatment effect. Based on a more nuanced, quantifiable, version of this principle, we design an interactive test called i-bet: the analyst forms a single permutation of the subjects one element at a time, and at each step the analyst bets toy money on whether that subject was actually treated or not, and learns the truth immediately after. The wealth process forms a real-valued measure of evidence against the global causal null, and we may reject the null at level if the wealth ever crosses 1= . Apart from providing a fresh “game-theoretic” principle on which to base the causal conclusion, the i-bet has other statistical and computational benefits, for example (A) allowing a human to adaptively design the test statistic based on increasing amounts of data being revealed (along with any working causal models and prior knowledge), and (B) not requiring permutation resampling, instead noting that under the null, the wealth forms a nonnegative martingale, and the type-1 error control of the aforementioned decision rule follows from a tight inequality by Ville. Further, if the null is not rejected, new subjects can later be added and the test can be simply continued, without any corrections (unlike with permutation p-values). Numerical experiments demonstrate good power under various heterogeneous treatment effects. We first describe i-bet test for two-sample comparisons with unpaired data, and then adapt it to paired data, multi-sample comparison, and sequential settings; these may be viewed as interactive martingale variants of the Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, and Friedman tests. 
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  2. Bach, Francis ; Blei, David ; Scholkopf, Bernhard (Ed.)
    This paper investigates the asymptotic behaviors of gradient descent algorithms (particularly accelerated gradient descent and stochastic gradient descent) in the context of stochastic optimization arising in statistics and machine learning, where objective functions are estimated from available data. We show that these algorithms can be computationally modeled by continuous-time ordinary or stochastic differential equations. We establish gradient flow central limit theorems to describe the limiting dynamic behaviors of these computational algorithms and the large-sample performances of the related statistical procedures, as the number of algorithm iterations and data size both go to infinity, where the gradient flow central limit theorems are governed by some linear ordinary or stochastic differential equations, like time-dependent Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. We illustrate that our study can provide a novel unified framework for a joint computational and statistical asymptotic analysis, where the computational asymptotic analysis studies the dynamic behaviors of these algorithms with time (or the number of iterations in the algorithms), the statistical asymptotic analysis investigates the large-sample behaviors of the statistical procedures (like estimators and classifiers) that are computed by applying the algorithms; in fact, the statistical procedures are equal to the limits of the random sequences generated from these iterative algorithms, as the number of iterations goes to infinity. The joint analysis results based on the obtained gradient flow central limit theorems lead to the identification of four factors—learning rate, batch size, gradient covariance, and Hessian—to derive new theories regarding the local minima found by stochastic gradient descent for solving non-convex optimization problems. 
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  3. Bach, Francis ; Blei, David ; Scholkopf, Bernhard (Ed.)
    This paper investigates the asymptotic behaviors of gradient descent algorithms (particularly accelerated gradient descent and stochastic gradient descent) in the context of stochastic optimization arising in statistics and machine learning, where objective functions are estimated from available data. We show that these algorithms can be computationally modeled by continuous-time ordinary or stochastic differential equations. We establish gradient flow central limit theorems to describe the limiting dynamic behaviors of these computational algorithms and the large-sample performances of the related statistical procedures, as the number of algorithm iterations and data size both go to infinity, where the gradient flow central limit theorems are governed by some linear ordinary or stochastic differential equations, like time-dependent Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. We illustrate that our study can provide a novel unified framework for a joint computational and statistical asymptotic analysis, where the computational asymptotic analysis studies the dynamic behaviors of these algorithms with time (or the number of iterations in the algorithms), the statistical asymptotic analysis investigates the large-sample behaviors of the statistical procedures (like estimators and classifiers) that are computed by applying the algorithms; in fact, the statistical procedures are equal to the limits of the random sequences generated from these iterative algorithms, as the number of iterations goes to infinity. The joint analysis results based on the obtained The joint analysis results based on the obtained gradient flow central limit theorems lead to the identification of four factors---learning rate, batch size, gradient covariance, and Hessian---to derive new theories regarding the local minima found by stochastic gradient descent for solving non-convex optimization problems. 
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