Properties of amorphous iron phosphate in pseudocapacitive sodium ion removal for water desalination
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an energy saving and environmentally friendly technology for water desalination. However, classical CDI is challenged by a low salt removal capacity. To improve the desalination capacity, electrode materials utilizing the battery mechanism for salt ion removal have emerged as a new direction more recently. In this work, we report a study of amorphous iron phosphate (FePO 4 ) as a promising electrode material for pseudocapacitive sodium ion removal. Sodium ions can be effectively, reversibly intercalated and de-intercalated upon its electrochemical reduction and oxidation, with an excellent sodium ion capacity under half-cell testing conditions. By assembling a hybrid CDI (HCDI) system utilizing the FePO 4 electrode for pseudocapacitive sodium ion removal and active carbon electrode for capacitive chloride ion removal, the cell exhibited a high salt removal capacity and good reversibility and durability, which was attributed to the advantageous features of amorphous FePO 4 . The HCDI system achieved a high deionization capacity (82 mg g −1 ) in 10 mM NaCl, a fast deionization rate (0.046 mg g −1 s −1 ), and good stability and cyclability.