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- Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2019
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- National Science Foundation
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False power consumption data injected from compromised smart meters in Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) of smart grids is a threat that negatively affects both customers and utilities. In particular, organized and stealthy adversaries can launch various types of data falsification attacks from multiple meters using smart or persistent strategies. In this paper, we propose a real time, two tier attack detection scheme to detect orchestrated data falsification under a sophisticated threat model in decentralized micro-grids. The first detection tier monitors whether the Harmonic to Arithmetic Mean Ratio of aggregated daily power consumption data is outside a normal range known as safe margin. To confirm whether discrepancies in the first detection tier is indeed an attack, the second detection tier monitors the sum of the residuals (difference) between the proposed ratio metric and the safe margin over a frame of multiple days. If the sum of residuals is beyond a standard limit range, the presence of a data falsification attack is confirmed. Both the ‘safe margins’ and the ‘standard limits’ are designed through a ‘system identification phase’, where the signature of proposed metrics under normal conditions are studied using real AMI micro-grid data sets from two different countries over multiple years.more »
With the development of the emerging Connected Vehicle (CV) technology, vehicles can wirelessly communicate with traffic infrastructure and other vehicles to exchange safety and mobility information in real time. However, the integrated communication capability inevitably increases the attack surface of vehicles, which can be exploited to cause safety hazard on the road. Thus, it is highly desirable to systematically understand design-level flaws in the current CV network stack as well as in CV applications, and the corresponding security/safety consequences so that these flaws can be proactively discovered and addressed before large-scale deployment. In this paper, we design CVAnalyzer, a system for discovering design-level flaws for availability violations of the CV network stack, as well as quantifying the corresponding security/safety consequences. To achieve this, CVAnalyzer combines the attack discovery capability of a general model checker and the quantitative threat assessment capability of a probabilistic model checker. Using CVAnalyzer, we successfully uncovered 4 new DoS (Denial-of-Service) vulnerabilities of the latest CV network protocols and 14 new DoS vulnerabilities of two CV platoon management protocols. Our quantification results show that these attacks can have as high as 99% success rates, and in the worst case can at least double the delay in packetmore »
Controller Area Network (CAN) is the de-facto standard in-vehicle network system. Despite its wide adoption by automobile manufacturers, the lack of security design makes it vulnerable to attacks. For instance, broadcasting packets without authentication allows the impersonation of electronic control units (ECUs). Prior mitigations, such as message authentication or intrusion detection systems, fail to address the compatibility requirement with legacy ECUs, stealthy and sporadic malicious messaging, or guaranteed attack detection. We propose a novel authentication system called ShadowAuth that overcomes the aforementioned challenges by offering backward-compatible packet authentication to ECUs without requiring ECU firmware source code. Specifically, our authentication scheme provides transparent CAN packet authentication without modifying existing CAN packet definitions (e.g., J1939) via automatic ECU firmware instrumentation technique to locate CAN packet transmission code, and instrument authentication code based on the CAN packet behavioral transmission patterns. ShadowAuth enables vehicles to detect state-of-the-art CAN attacks, such as bus-off and packet injection, responsively within 60ms without false positives. ShadowAuth provides a sound and deployable solution for real-world ECUs.
The bi-directional communication capabilities that emerged into the smart power grid play a critical role in the grid's secure, reliable and efficient operation. Nevertheless, the data communication functionalities introduced to Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) nodes end the grid's isolation, and expose the network into an array of cyber-security threats that jeopardize the grid's stability and availability. For instance, malware amenable to inject false data into the AMI can compromise the grid's state estimation process and lead to catastrophic power outages. In this paper, we explore several statistical spatio-temporal models for efficient diagnosis of false data injection attacks in smart grids. The proposed methods leverage the data co-linearities that naturally arise in the AMI measurements of the electric network to provide forecasts for the network's AMI observations, aiming to quickly detect the presence of “bad data”. We evaluate the proposed approaches with data tampered with stealth attacks compiled via three different attack strategies. Further, we juxtapose them against two other forecasting-aided detection methods appearing in the literature, and discuss the trade-offs of all techniques when employed on real-world power grid data, obtained from a large university campus.
Detection of deception attacks is pivotal to ensure the safe and reliable operation of cyber-physical systems (CPS). Detection of such attacks needs to consider time-series sequences and is very challenging especially for autonomous vehicles that rely on high-dimensional observations from camera sensors. The paper presents an approach to detect deception attacks in real-time utilizing sensor observations, with a special focus on high-dimensional observations. The approach is based on inductive conformal anomaly detection (ICAD) and utilizes a novel generative model which consists of a variational autoencoder (VAE) and a recurrent neural network (RNN) that is used to learn both spatial and temporal features of the normal dynamic behavior of the system. The model can be used to predict the observations for multiple time steps, and the predictions are then compared with actual observations to efficiently quantify the nonconformity of a sequence under attack relative to the expected normal behavior, thereby enabling real-time detection of attacks using high-dimensional sequential data. We evaluate the approach empirically using two simulation case studies of an advanced emergency braking system and an autonomous car racing example, as well as a real-world secure water treatment dataset. The experiments show that the proposed method outperforms other detectionmore »